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Presentation on theme: "BY CLOVER DISPLAY LTD. (HONG KONG S.A.R, CHINA) AN LCD MANUFACTURER SINCE 1983 URL & DATE : Sept 29, 2005 SPEAKER Mr. JOHNNY."— Presentation transcript:


2 1.0. FLAT PANEL DISPLAYS Display Types ( commonly used Display ) Emits Light VoltageCurrentPatterning Flexibility CRT ( Cathode Ray Tube )YesHigh DCLow( scanning ) VFD ( Vacuum Florescent Displays ) YesHigh DCLowMedium LED ( Light Emitting Diode )YesLow DCMediumLow Plasma DisplaysYesHigh DCLow EL ( Electro Luminescent Displays ) YesHigh DCLowHigh LCD ( Liquid Crystal Display ) NO Low ACLowHigh OLED (Organic LED)YesLow DCLow- medium High P.1.

3 2.1. Three major characteristics of Liquid Crystal 2.1.1. The Thermal Nature High Temp Clearing PointMelting Point Liquid State Liquid Crystaline State Solid State (Crystal) 2.1.2. The Optical Nature of a LC molecule Light NO light passing through Light passing through Low Temp 2.1.3. The Electrical Nature of the LC molecules AC potential No potential field Electrodes P.2. 2.0. LIQUID CRYSTAL XXX

4 Smectic Phase Nematic Phase Cholesteric phase 2.2. COMMON STRUCTURAL PHASES in the Liquid Crystal State P.3. 2.3. Two other components to make a Liquid Crystal Display Panel 2.3.1. Transparent Electrodes ---- Glass with conductive ITO layer which is etched to form a pattern. 2.3.2. The Polarizer Film Light wave & its axis Polarizer & its light axis Outgoing light & its axis

5 2.4. A TYPICAL TN TYPE LCD CELL With AC Volts connected NO power supply Polarizer (Axis 0 degree) Polarizer (Axis 90 degrees) Glass with electrodes Light Cell Gap = The separation between two glasses Positive Mode = Black digit on the grey background Negative Mode = Clear digits on the dark background P.4.


7 2.6. CHARACTERISTIC CURVES % LIGHT ABSORPTION (or TRANSMISSION) VOLTS Vs (Saturation Voltage) Vth (Threshold Voltage) 10% change 90% changes At higher Temp. Time % Light Absorption Ton 5ms to 100ms Toff 20ms to 300ms Depending on how the LCD fluid is formulated. The smaller the cell gap, the faster response. 0 volt Vth of LC -40 deg C +80 deg C 5 v 4 v -40 deg C +80 deg C LC Fluid Viscosity 10,000 100 mm2/sec At a lower Temp. P.6.

8 2.7. TN & STN (Super Twisted Nematic) mid-plane tilt angle VthVs The LC molecule 90 deg Twisted 180 deg 240 deg Volts % Light Absorption 0 0 0 Twisted VV Narrow View Angle TN LCDSTN LCD Wide View Angle Grey Background in the positive mode Yellow Green background color In the positive mode P.7.

9 2.8. HTN (Highly Twisted Nematic) & FSTN (Film STN) TN 90 deg Twisted STN 180 deg or higher deg Twisted HTN 110 deg Twisted Narrow View Angle Wide View Angle BUT with Darker Color Background & Blue or dark blue patterns. Wider View Angle than TN but narrower than STN FSTN 240 deg or higher deg Twisted View angle same as 240 deg STN BUT in Grey Background Color & Black patterns. LCD Cell Retardation Films on Polarizers to correct the color phase DSTN (Double STN Cells) 1st Cell with patterns Same as usual STN 2nd Cell without pattern But in reverse twisting Old way when NO Retardation film 1st Minimum TN Little wider View Angle than TN (see later pages) Polarizer P.8.

10 2.9. COMPARISON AMONG TN, HTN, STN & FSTN 2.9.1. Positive Mode (Pattern on a Clear Background) EitherTNHTNSTN FSTN Deg Twisted90110180240 Background Color Grey Yellow Green or Grey Grey or Yellow Green Grey Pattern Color Black Dark Blue or Blue Blue or Dark Blue Black Temp Range-40C to +85C-20C to +40C-20C to +70C Multiplex Ratio =< 1/8 duty=<1/16 duty=<1/32 duty=<1/240 duty View Angle60 deg80 deg120 deg 110 deg View Direction At 6 or 12 Oclock ONLY At 6 or 12 Oclock ONLY May specify 6 or 12 Oclock May specify 6 or 12 Oclock All Voltage2.5v min 5v typical 3v min 5v typical 3v min 5v typical 5v typical, (higher duty, higher volts) P.9.

11 2.9.2. Negative Mode (Clear Pattern on a Color Background) TNHTNSTN FSTN Degree Twisted90 deg110 deg180 deg240 deg Background Color Black (Seldom used)Dark BlueBlack Pattern ColorClear (Seldom used)Clear Other natures same as the Positive Mode. 2.10. Gooch-Tarry Curve --- The 1 st Minimum TN LCD % Transmission 12% 0% 4% 8% d n (um) 0.48 (1st Min* )1.05 (2nd Min)1.64 (3rd Min) n : Birefringence (reflective indices of Light transmitted in parallel & perpendicular To the director of LC molecules. d : the cell gap P.10. *The 1st Min process is patented by E. Merck.

12 2.11. THE STATIC & MULTIPLEX DESIGN OF ELECTRODES 4 pairs of electrodes 8 connectors needed. No time sharing for the input signals – The STATIC Design 5 electrodes 5 connectors needed. 1/4 time sharing for the input signals to each of the top electrode. No time sharing for the bottom glass. We call the top electrodes the SEGMENT while the bottom electrodes the COMMON. 4 electrodes in matrix 4 connectors needed. 1/2 time sharing for the input signals to both the top and bottom electrodes---- The MULTIPLEX Design. We call it 1/2 duty if the 1/2 time sharing is used on the Common. The higher the duty ratio, the shorter time the power signal goes into each electrode pair. Finally the power rms value may NOT be enough to fully drive the LC twisting properly. PROBLEM: P.11.

13 2.12. THE PASSIVE AND ACTIVE LCD Signal Time X1 X2 Y1Y2 An ACTIVE Component ; MIM (metal insulator metal) Diode Or TFT (thin film transistor) The LCD Pixel The TFT method is commonly used today on the large DOT MATRIX LCD, we call it the ACTIVE MATRIX LCD, or AMLCD The LCD built together with the Active Component is not only the TFT LCD. The LCOS is also an LCD built on a silicon wafer with active components to control the LCD. In general, the duty ratio over 1/256 may not give a good contrast in the Passive design. But there are still some special design to work in the Passive way, such as; Dual Scan STN (DSTN), High Performance Addressing (HPA), …. etc P.12.

14 2.13. THE HISTORY OF LC & LCD ApplicationApprox YearMajor Development 1888 Liquid Crystalline initially described by an Austrian Scientist, Mr. Friedrich Reinitzer. 1904 E. Merck sold the first Liquid Crystal substrates to the research market. 1960 Westinghouse used the cholesteric LC as a temperature indicator. 1965 RCA demonstrated a dynamic scattering LCD to show numeric symbols. Kent State Univ. in Ohio USA presented an LCD operated at room temp. 1970Rockwell (USA) and Sharp (Japan) made LCD Calculators. Hull Univ. in England synthesised new biphenyls with excellent physical properties for display use. Higher Contrast Twisted Nematic Mode in use. OCLI (USA) coated ITO on glass as electrodes. BDH (UK) sold LC to LCD manufacturers. 1975 Hamlin Inc (USA) in TN LCD mass production. E. Merck introduced Biphenylcyclohexanes LC for higher multiplex. Motorola built LCD on 4 ½x 4 ½ glass substrates Microma (USA) further improved the mass production technique and Fairchild Semiconductor Inc. moved LCD production to Hong Kong. Timex (USA) bought RCA LCD facility and merged with Fairchild. The Japanese developed a Chemical Sealing process for cost reduction. Thermometer Calculator Time pieces Instruments Data bank & PDA P.13.

15 ApplicationApprox YearMajor Development 2.13. THE HISTORY (continued) The first LCD scriber made by Villa Precision Inc. (USA) 1980 Roche, BDH, E.Merck improve LC mixtures for TN, STN Fairchild scaled up to 14x14 substrates5x7 Character Dot Matrix Graphic Word Processor Clover Display Ltd established in May 1983 MIM & TFT AMLCD invented Full Dot Matrix & TV Panels 1985 PDA, Laptop & Notebook PC Brewer Science Inc. & OIS of Troy, USA developed colour AMLCD for space shuttle use. Full color TFT panel for Notebook PC 1990 1995 2000 Bi-stable Cholesteric LCD E Books Mobile phones New Display to replace LCD ?---- OLED, PLED P.14.

16 3.0. HOW LCDs ARE MADE 3.1. THE FRONT END PROCESS ITO Glass ITO = Indium Tin Oxide, a transparent conductive layer coated on the Sodium Lime Glass. Its resistance is from 10 Ohms to 120 Ohms/square. Glass area usually in 14x16. Thickness in 1.1, 0.7, 0.5, 0.4, 0.3mm Clean Glass with DI water Patterning the Electrodes on ITO Artwork & Mask Design Methods: Photo Masking, Resist Ink Printing, ITO Ink direct Printing, Laser Cutting. Alignment Layer Sealing Frame & Silver Dot Printing Top/bottom Glass Alignment and Seal To form the cell and the inter-connections between the top and bottom glasses To form a rough surface to hold the LC molecule chains The Laminated pairs P.15.

17 3.2. THE BACK END PROCESS Laminated Pair Cutting into cells Liquid Crystal Filling Liquid Crystal Mixture Formulation End Sealing & Cleaning Testing & Inspection Polarizer Fixing Polarizer Cutting Cosmetic Check Shipments Optional Process Metal Pin or Heat Seal Connector fixing LCD Module Assembly (COB, TAB, COG, COF) P.16.

18 4.0. THE COLOR LCD Black and White LCD Full Color LCD Slice ITO into narrow sections RGB Color Filter Segments Common The color LCD can be built as a Passive LCD. But most large size Dot Matrix Color LCDs are built in the Active design. P.17. In order to give a better color mixing, the RGB line widths are usually less than 30 micron in width per color. Hence the same for the ITO electrodes. 4.1. THE FULL COLOR LCD

19 4.0. THE COLOR LCD (continued) 4.2. THE ECB (ELECTRICALLY CONTROLLED BIREFRINGENCE) COLOR LCD ClearDark Grey Y O R P B G Color around 2.4v to 3.7v Dark V % Light Absorption 0 V Various ECB Types; 1) Homogeneous Type Red->Yellow->Green->Blue 2) Deformation of Vert Aligned Plane (DAP) Type Blue->Green->Yellow->Red 3) Hybrid Aligned Nematic (HAN) Type Green->Red->Blue 4) Vertical Aligned Nematic (VAN) Type P.18. No pure color, 50% Green + 25% Red + 25% Blue at this point

20 4.3. DOUBLE CELL COLOR LCD There are two kinds of double cell can generate colors; A) With Color PolarizerB) With usual Polarizers at certain angles (Only working in Transmissive Mode) (Reflective Mode is also possible) 4.4. GUEST HOST LCD (Single fixed color) Mixing color dye in the LC fluid and build LCD in Negative Mode. It will show clear pattern on a color background. Such method was used in the early date. 4.5. LCD WITH COLOR POLARIZER, COLOR FILM OR COLOR REFLECTOR IN CERTAIN AREA (fixed color) 4.6. COLOR INK PRINTING ON THE BOTTOM GLASS SURFACE (fixed color) Pre-printed color polarizer is expensive. This is the cheapest way to make LCD with fixed colors. The LC image & color area may not coincide well due to the glass thickness. P.19.

21 5.0. TODAYS LCD Duty Ratio Panel Size 1/1 Static 1/2 1/3 1/4 1/8 1/16 1/32 1/64 1/256 10 mm21001,000 10,000 100,000 mm2 Time pieces Hand Held Games Film Camera Calculator Data Bank Mobile Phone Digital Instruments PDA Digital Camera Office Equipment Notebook PanelsProjector Portable TV Active LCD Passive LCD STN TN 1M+ Pixels 100K Pixels 10K Pixels 1K Pixels 100 Pixels P.20. LCD TV & Monitors 1/128

22 6.0. CUSTOM DESIGN LCD & LCM --- The factors to consider 6.1. LCD PANEL DIMENSIONS Outer Dimensions (Be economical size) View Area (normally 2mm from the edges) End Seal (0.5mm thick) Active Area (Area with patterns) Pinout or Connection Area (2 to 2.5mm) Glass Thickness (1.1, 0.7, 0.5, 0.4 or 0.3mm/one side) Economical Panel Size: The outer dimension may use up most the raw glass sheet area. 14x16 inches (355x406 mm) 7x8 inches (178x203mm) For small order size or pilot run, 7x8 inches sheets are used to boost up the yield and save the tool cost. (The usable area is 7mm off the edge) ( Glass Material: Sodium Lime Glass with SiO2 barrier, surface polished for STN use ) P.21. Raw Glass Sheet or

23 6.2. PANEL CONFIGURATIONS Eyes ABCD Connectors suitable: Zebra (Silicone Rubber) – A, B, Heat Seal or TAB – A, B, C, D, Metal Pins – C, D, All the above 4 models required Ag (silver) connections inside the LCD cell. If such Ag connection not to be used or unable to be used, the configurations will be as follows; The thick lines representing the pinout areas. EF G Models E, F & G are good for combination use of Zebra and Heat Seal connectors together. Most TAB connections are also applying on such models. P.22. For TN LCD, dont forget to specify the View Direction 12 Oclock 6 Oclock 45+deg 15+deg 40+deg 15+deg 45+deg

24 6.3. PATTERN LAYOUT C S1 S2 S3 S4 S5 S6S6 S3 C S1 S2 S4 S5 Good Layout Bad Layout Too Long Trace Cross Over Narrow down trace + P.23.

25 6.4. ZEBRA CONNECTORS Side Wall Insulators Conductive Layers Insulation Layers Pitch: (Conductor/Insulator Layers) Low Cost Type --- 0.25+-0.05mm General Type ----- 0.18+-0.04 mm Dot Matrix Type – 0.10+-0.03 mm Graphic Type ------0.05+-0.025 mm Contact Resistance: 1000 –1500 ohms at 10%-15% compression Metal Mounting Bezel PCB LCD Zebra Assembly Mis-aligned Good A safer way (wider contact on PCB) LCD Zebra Pre-clean Zebra Three or more conductors in contact PCB wraping <0.375mm / 50 mm Bezel has opening gaps with PCB 0.3mm or 10%-15% compression Dummy zebra use with single side contact LCD. Insulation side wall quality. Precautions in Assembly P.24. Three kinds of Rubber 1. Sponge Rubber 2. Silicon Rubber 3. Super Soft Rubber

26 6.5. HEAT SEAL CONNECTORS Conductors (~20 um particles) printed on a Polyester (PET) Film of 20 -25um Contact Resistance& Pitch Graphite Type --- 35 to 100 ohms/sq 0.40, 0.60, 2.80 mm Silver Graphite Type ---- 0.5 ohm/sq 0.23, 0.35, 2.80 mm Silver Type ------ 0.05 ohm/sq 0.23 mm Choose proper LCD configuration: PET side Conductor side LCD PCB LCD PCB PET side Hot Press PCB PET film Welded Precautions in Assembly The Hot Press head temperature 120-140 deg C at joint 32 Kg/sq cm pressure is recommended Leveling the press for even pressure along the joint. Properly select the sealing time to prevent uneven flow or wash away the conductor particles. 100pcs/mm2 particles at contact area is suggested. Peeling off strength be >200gm (Vertical) & >500gm (Horizontal) P.25.

27 6.6. METAL PIN CONNECTORS ( for 0.7 & 1.1mm glass ) LCD Standard Pitch: 1.27mm, 1.8mm, 2.0mm, 2.54mm Pin Length: 20mm, 30mm, & 45mm max Contact Resistance: <0.05 ohm Precautions in Assembly: Prolong soldering may damage the Pin contact to glass ---- A good LCD will add carbon cushion between pin clip and glass contact area. Care on bending the pins ---- LCD maker provides pin lead forming. Pin length under 4.0mm is not recommended. Wave solder is not recommended ---- Polarizer is weak Mechanical stress on pin or temperature changes may cause LCD background color changed. 6.7. TAB (TCP IC BONDING) IC on a flexible film with conductors. The Film is heat sealed onto the LCD pinout area LCD P.26. TAB = Tape Automation Bonding TCP = Tape Carrier Package All the above connections may have IC on PCB by SMT, Wire Bonding (COB) or Insert & Solder. Epoxy enforcement Wider seal area is required. Clip Depth 2.0mm to 2.4mm max

28 6.8. CHIP ON FILM (COF) Same as TAB, but with more components on the film like a circuitry on PCB LCD 6.9. CHIP ON GLASS (COG) LCD IC Chip Glass with Fine traces Fan-in & Fan-out Same as an usual LCD Most panels with Metal Pins The IC Chip for COG is different from those for usual wire bonding on PCB. P.27. ACF* film is used to fix the COG chip onto the glass. The ACF film is similar to Heat Seal but with much finer Pitch and conductive particles. * ACF=Anisotropic Conductive Film

29 6.10. TRICKS ON THE LCD PANEL DESIGN 6.10.1. THE BIAS VOLTAGE % LIGHT ABSORPTION 10% 90% 0 volt Volts Vth The Bias Voltage Time The driving Voltage Theoretical Driving Waveform Applied to Segment Applied to Common Resulting Waveform to LCD OffOn Practical Design Waveform (Example: Waveform to LCD at 1/3 Bias) Off On V 2/3V 1/3V 0 -1/3V -2/3V -V P.28. Recommended Driving Freq 60 Hz to 120 Hz

30 6.10.1. THE BIAS VOLTAGE (continued) P.29. The formula and design facts; N: Multiplex Rate. Example: N=3 for 1/3 duty S: Bias The ideal design S=1+ N Vd: The supply voltage to the panel. Von = ( Vd / S ) x ( N-1+S ) / N Voff = ( Vd / S ) x [ N – 1 + ( S – 2 ) ] / N 2 2 N234816 S22345 Vd3 volts 5 volts Voff1.06 v1.22 v1.00 v0.88 v1.22 v Von2.37 v2.12 v1.73 v1.27 v1.58 v Von – Voff1.31 v0.90 v0.73 v0.39 v0.36 v Less than 1 volt ! Beware the drifting under temp changes

31 6.10.2. CROSS OVER LAYOUT C2 S1 S2 S3 S4 C1 2 cross over points Hided under Frame Epoxy Sealing Frame Ag Dot Connection 6.10.3. THE POLARIZER SELECTION The Glue Type or Non-glue Type polarizer. The Polarizer with the UV Barrier may extend the LCD Life under strong UV exposure. The Anti Glare Polarizer may improve the contrast. The high durability polarizer may stand for wider temperature environment. The slightly orientation of Polarizer axis may change the background color. P.30. 6.11. THE THERMAL COMPENSATION It is recommended to use the thermal compensation circuit when a LCD will be operated under a wide temperature range.

32 6.12. TEMPERATURE RANGE Temp Deg C 0 deg -20 -30 +50+60 +75 deg General purpose Low Temp Type Wide Temp Type Operating Temp. Storage Temp 10 deg C lower10 deg C higher Problem when exceeds rated temp. Black Spots Slow response Background blackened Cross Talk The STN temp is 10 deg narrower than TN All the above defects are reversible at room temp Temp -40 deg +10+30 deg +100 Possible design Specific for Low Temp Specific for High Temp P.31. Clearing point Melting point

33 6.13. BACK LIGHTS Choice of Back Light DescriptionsCommon Color Side LED Type ( Fig. 1 ) Wedge diffuser (Light Guide) and reflector are needed. Poor illumination for large panel Yellow Green, Blue, White Array LED Type ( Fig. 2 ) Consuming more power and generating more heat. Beware the difference in supply voltages of each model. Easy assembly Yellow Green, Red. EL (Electro- Luminescent) The best in even brightness and light weight. But less brighter than LED Backlight. High voltage and EMC consideration. Green, Blue, White. CCFL (Cold Cathode Fluorescent Lamp) The strongest illumination. High voltage and EMC consideration. White. Important: The Transmissive and the Transflective Type LCD absorb the different light intensity. Diffuser Paper Reflector Paper Reflector domes LEDs Light Guide Fig. 1.Fig. 2. Light P. 32. LED wiring + -

34 7.0. BI-STABLE LCD Bi-stable Cholesteric Display, or SSCT – Surface Stabilised Cholestric Texture Display, or Multi-stable Chiral Nematic Display, or E-Book Display This is a new technology in LCD making use of the Cholesteric Liquid Crystal. Mr. John West and Mr. D. K. Yang of Kent State University, Ohio, USA filed the patent in 1995. The display image is retentive in the absence of an electric field. It has a excellent readability and wide view angle under the daylight or strong ambient light. No Polarizer is required on this kind of display panels. The Liquid Crystal is switchable and stable in two kinds of texture. (a)The Twisted Planar Texture, which has the LC layers parallel to the display surface, reflects the incident light. (b) The Focal Conic Texture, whose LC is in fragmentary, scatters the incident light. Switch-able The above two textures are switch-able under 30V to 180V pulse of 10ms to 100ms, and stable in zero electric field. By properly adjust the pitch of the Twisted Planar Texture, it can reflect R, G, B lights. P.33. (a)(b)

35 8.0. ORGANIC LED The Organic Electro Luminescent Displays (OELD), or The Organic Light Emitting Devices (OLED) The EL ( Electro-luminescence ) Back Light for LCD has been used for many years. It operates at high voltage (>100V). In 1987, Tang and Van Slyke in Kodak, USA reported a low voltage (<10V) Organic EL. It comes a new display ---- the OELD. 8.1. THE BASIC STRUCTURE Metal Cathode Electron Transport Layer Re-combination and Emission Layer Hole Transport Layer ITO Layer (Anode) Glass Substrate Light emits 8.2. THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN LCD & OLED LCDOLED No Light emissionEmits light in colours (100cd/sqm) Narrow view angleWide view angle (>150 degrees) Slow responseFast response (<10 microsec) OLED has most the advantage of LCD such as; Easy patterning Low operating voltage but at high current ( 20ma/cm2) Low manufacturing cost Thin and light weight P.34. DC volt

36 8.0. ORGANIC LED (continued) 8.3. THE OLED & PLED There are two major ways to build the OLED; a.The small molecule process ---- by spluttering the organic materials onto the ITO patterns. Kodak uses such way. b.The large molecule process, or the polymer process ---- by spin coating, dip coating or screen printing the organic pastes layer by layer. Cavendish Lab in Cambridge, UK and Dow Corning, USA developed such process and materials in 90s. Some people now call the OLED made under polymer process the PLED. The small molecule process is also applying to making the ACTIVE OLED. Pioneer, Japan seems the first one in mass production for the OLED. It is expected the OLED will replace the LCD step by step from 2005. CLOVER DISPLAY GROUP has started a joint venture with the University of Hong Kong to research and develop the materials and process for OLED. The newly formed joint venture company is named COLED DISPLAY LTD., established Sept 2002. P.35.

37 9.0. TOUCH PANELS 9.1. ANALOG TYPE PE Film With ITO Glass with ITO Silver Conductors Pin out Area Epoxy dots As Spacer RaRb Rc Rd A PE film with ITO layer is sealed onto an ITO Glass with epoxy dots as Spacer to maintain a gap. When the external pressure of touching makes contact of two ITO layers, the sensing IC circuit with give an analog reading corresponding to the touch position. 9.2. DIGITAL TYPE PE Film With ITO Glass with ITO Pin out Area Epoxy dots As Spacer The ITO on the PE Film and the ITO Glass are etched out into sectors. When touched, the corresponding sectors are shorted circuit and reflected to the pins concerned. P.36.

38 10.0. CUSTOM LCD/LCM DEVELOPMENT GUIDE. Enquiry from Customer Feasibility Study & NRE Charge / Unit Price Quoted Free quote in 2-4 working days NRE Order Confirmation NRE payment in advance LCD Panel PCB & CircuitExternal Casing Panel Drawing for Approval Circuit diagram & PCB Layout Case Drawing 1 week 1-3 weeks Mask Design & Samples** for Approval PCB Tool Design & Samples** for Approval Hand mould up sample 3-6 weeks 3-4 weeks3-10 weeks Primary Sample Final Case Mould Final Sample 3-9 weeks Total development time; LCD Panels 4-7 weeks, LCM Modules 4-10 weeks; With External Case 7-18 weeks ** normally 10-20 LCD or 3-5 LCM samples will be free. For more qty, please notice us in advance when confirm the NRE order. P.37.

39 11.0. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT & DECLAIMER We have tried our best to present up-to-date and correct information here. Some of them to be explained together with photographs and demonstration samples to form a complete part of the Introduction. We wish that the information discussed in this seminar may help the design engineers to make a cost effective and quality custom design in an easier and logical way. However, this is not an academic seminar that we have used a simply way in the presentation. All information here is provided in good faith without any expressed or implied warranty. The reader should seek for more detail advice from the industry. The information in above are partly referring to the following documents; 1.Proceedings of the Liquid Crystal Seminar HK by E. Merck, Darmstadt, Germany. 2.Various articles in the SID International Symposium and Information Display by the Society for Information Display, Inc. USA 3.LCD Displays, the leading edge in flat panel displays, by Sharp Technical Library, Vol. 1, of Sharp Corporation, Osaka, Japan. Prepared by; Johnny C. L. Chou, Clover Display Ltd. Room 1006, 26 Hung To Road, 10/F, Kwun Tong, Hong Kong Tel: 23428228, 23413238 Fax: 23418785, 23574237 email: cdl@cloverdisplay,com URL: (in English) (in Japanese) (in Chinese) Editions: 7 th edition Sept 29, 2005 6 th edition Mar 13, 2003. 5 th edition Sept 19, 2001. 4 th edition Apr 16, 2000. 3 rd edition Sept 6, 1999. 2 nd edition Sept 1, 1998. 1 st edition May 19,1997. All copy rights reserved Clover Display Ltd. H.K. P.38.


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