Presentation on theme: "1 Chapter 5 Output Devices and Media. 2 The Basics of Output n Output is processed data, usually text, graphics, or sound, that can be used immediately."— Presentation transcript:
1 Chapter 5 Output Devices and Media
2 The Basics of Output n Output is processed data, usually text, graphics, or sound, that can be used immediately by people, or stored in computer-usable form for later use. n There are many types of computer output. Those used directly by people fall in two general categories: hard copy and soft copy. n Hard copy is, typically recorded on a tangible medium such as paper or microfiche/microfilm. n Hard copy is a permanent version of output, typically recorded on a tangible medium such as paper or microfiche/microfilm. n Soft copy is, typically displayed on a computer screen. n Soft copy is a temporary version of output, typically displayed on a computer screen.
3 Output-Oriented Hardware
5 Monitors n Monitors are peripheral devices that contain viewing, or display, screens. n Many monitors use a cathode ray tube (CRT) as the display screen. n A monitor is often paired with an input device, such as a keyboard, to form a unit called a video display terminal (VDT).
6 Resolution n The clarity, or sharpness, of images displayed on the monitor is a function of its resolution. n Resolution is increased by increasing pixel density and decreasing dot pitch. n Refresh rate also affects image clarity. As each pixel is illuminated, it lights up - and immediately begins to fade. To minimize this fade, and the resultant flickering that may be seen by the user, each pixel must be illuminated regularly.
7 Cathode Ray Tube Monitors
8 Monochrome Monitors n Monochrome monitors display pixels in a single color on a screen with a contrasting background. n The most common color combinations are dark/light green, dark/light amber, and black/white. n Although limited to one color, monochrome monitors can usually display shades of that color, called gray- scaling.
9 Color Monitors n Color monitors display characters and graphics using a combination of red, green, and blue, and therefore are called RGB monitors. n A color monitor is able to display anywhere from eight to hundreds of thousands of colors at one time. n Color monitors are especially useful for displaying graphics.
10 Some Color Graphics Standards n Color Graphics Adapter (CGA) standard - provides low-resolution, 4-color graphics. n Enhanced Graphics Adapter (EGA) standard - provides up to 16 colors at higher resolution. n Video Graphics Array (VGA) standard - can handle up to 256 colors, with a moderate increase in resolution. n Super Video Graphics Array (SVGA) standard - provides even more colors, and increased resolution.
11 Flat-Panel Monitors n Portable and notebook computers require small, lightweight, low-powered monitors. Flat-panel monitors meet these criteria, and can be used to display text and graphics in either monochrome or color. n The two most commonly used flat-panel display technologies are liquid crystal and gas plasma.
12 Types of Flat-Panel Monitors n A liquid crystal display (LCD) screen is made of two sheets of polarizing material sandwiched together with a liquid crystal solution between them. The liquid crystals twist when an electrical current is applied. n A gas plasma display screen is made of a sandwich of two sheets of transparent material filled with an inert gas (such as neon) that glows when an electrical current is applied.
13 Monitor Ergonomics n The science of studying the interaction of humans and office equipment is called ergonomics. n There has been concern that electromagnetic emissions from computer monitors, particularly those in the 5 Hz to 400 KHz range, might cause cancer or affect pregnancies. n Another cause for concern has been physical maladies such as carpal tunnel syndrome.
14 Workstation Ergonomics
16 Printers n Printers are the most common type of hard copy output devices. n One way to classify printers is by whether they are impact or nonimpact. n Impact printers create images on paper by striking an inked ribbon against the paper, depositing the ink on the paper. n Nonimpact printers use heat, electricity, or laser technology to create the image on paper.
17 Impact Printers n These printers create images on the paper by physically striking an inked ribbon to deposit its ink on the paper. n An important advantage of impact printers is their ability to produce multiple (carbon) copies of documents and forms in one printing. n Some impact printers, called character printers, print a single character at a time, while line printers print an entire line at once.
18 Dot-Matrix Printers n Dot-matrix printers create characters in the form of small dots arranged in matrix format. n Dot-matrix printers offer a number of advantages, including: Are reasonably economical Are reasonably economical May be reasonably fast May be reasonably fast Can print graphics Can print graphics
19 Dot-Matrix Printers (continued) n There are also some disadvantages associated with dot-matrix printers, including: Reduced quality of output. Reduced quality of output. They may be rather noisy. They may be rather noisy. They are slower than line or page printers They are slower than line or page printers
20 Solid Font Printers n Solid font printers form an entire character in one print stroke. n A font is a complete set of characters in a consistent and unique typeface. n A common solid font printer used with personal computers is the daisywheel printer. n Chain printers and band printers are most often used as high-speed printers attached to larger computers.
21 Daisywheel Printers n Daisywheel printers use a spoke metal or plastic disk (shaped something like a daisy) with printed characters along its perimeter. n Noted for their high-quality printing, daisywheel printers used to be quite popular with personal computer users for word processing. n The wheel is removable and replaceable.
22 Line Printers n Chain and band high-speed impact printers are called line printers because they appear to print an entire line at a time. n Chain printers use a set of metal characters on a rotating chain to print an entire line of up to 132 characters almost simultaneously. n Band printers use a rotating band with characters embossed on the band.
23 Line Printers Chain Printer ---> <--- Band Printer
24 Nonimpact Printers n Nonimpact printers use heat, electricity, or laser technology to produce an output image. Most are dot- matrix printers. n The advantages they offer over impact dot-matrix printers include: They are faster. They are faster. They are quieter. They are quieter. The quality of print is higher. The quality of print is higher. n The two primary nonimpact printer technologies are laser and ink-jet.
25 Laser Printers n Laser printers represent the latest and fastest growing segment in the printer market. The primary reason for their popularity is their ability to produce text and graphic images with clear, crisp quality.
26 Laser Printer Technology
27 Ink-Jet Printers n Ink-jet printers spray tiny drops of ink through one or more nozzles onto the paper to create images in dot- matrix form. n The ink is forced out of the nozzles onto the paper through the use of either thermal or mechanical means.
28 Thermal Transfer Printers n Thermal transfer printers heat cyan, magenta, yellow, and black wax onto the page. n These printers contain heating devices that, when used with chemically treated paper, form high-quality images.
29 Dye Sublimation Printers n Dye sublimation printers produce continuous-tone images by vaporizing colored inks onto specially treated, heat-sensitive paper. n The quality of output of dye sublimation printers rivals that of color photos.
30 Output Spools and Buffers
31 Spools and Buffers n Spooling software allows data to be stored temporarily on a magnetic storage medium, usually a disk, until the printer is ready to print it. n Buffers, like the CPUs RAM, are temporary holding areas inside the output device that attempt to compensate for the difference in CPU and output device speeds.
32 Spools and Buffers Use of Spooling Devices Use of Buffer Memory
33 Other Output Devices and Media
34 Plotters n Plotters are hard copy devices for producing graphic images on paper. n Flatbed plotters hold the paper motionless on a flat bed while an arm that holds a drawing pen moves around in all directions to create the image. n Drum plotters lay the paper across a drum that rotates forward and backward as an arm holding the drawing pin moves perpendicular to the drums motion to create the image.
35 Presentation Graphics n Photographic slide devices make it possible to produce 35-millimeter slides of data that can be used with a slide projector and screen. n Screen image projectors rest on the top of an overhead projector, connect to the computer, and duplicate the screen image exactly as it would appear on the monitor.
36 Voice Output n Voice output systems convert data into digitized voice messages that are sent to the user. n A special application in which a computer converts electronic signal data into sound is called music synthesis. A music synthesizer can produce high- quality musical sounds.
37 Computer Output Microform (COM) n To save space, large organizations, libraries, etc., use computer output microform for miniaturizing and saving documents. The two common forms of microform are microfilm and microfiche. n Microfilm is a continuous roll of acetate film, similar to movie film. n Microfiche are 4- x 6-inch sheets of film, often called fiche.