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Presentation on theme: " UN Convention and Kioto Protocol Bali, 9 December 2007 Ana Belén Sánchez Energy and climate change 13/06/2014."— Presentation transcript:

1 UN Convention and Kioto Protocol Bali, 9 December 2007 Ana Belén Sánchez Energy and climate change 13/06/2014

2 2 13/06/2014 The beginning First, it was a scientific issue (1960-1970) Secondly, it gets a public issue Finally, it becomes in a political issue, must be discussed = appear the Convention There is always something to take into account in the process: Although we could reduce the emissions, the atmospheric concentration of GHG will continue increase some centuries more = Increase of the world temperature anyway.

3 3 13/06/2014 Scientific analysis, 1960-1970 Decade 1960-1970 Conclusions: the atmospheric CO2 concentrations was producing an increase of the global world temperature in the planet (greenhouse effect) These emissions were a result of the humanity activity, specially because of the use of energy. Consequences: more frequency and gravity of the extreme climate effects: hot and cold waves, droughts and floods, biodiversity looses

4 4 13/06/2014 It becomes a public-political issue, 1988 In 1980 the governments decided: it is a difficult question and must be broached for an independent institution In 1988 it is created the IPCC, under UNEP and the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) Aim: study why its produced this climate change effect, which are its environmental and socioeconomics effects and present some solutions to the problem IPCC doesnt do any research: These scientifics analyze other studies already published And finally, provide information to governments and policy makers.

5 5 13/06/2014 IPCC First report, 1990 In 1990 is published the first IPCC report Principal conclusions: the human activities and their emissions had produced a huge quantity of greenhouse gases emissions The CO2 is almost the half of the whole gasses The consequences will be huge along the whole planet And its a growing problem, unless we act soon, there will be some kind of effects which will do impossible to adapt to. Finally, we should reduce at least 60% of the GHG emissions to avoid it!! Now, There are three more reports

6 The 4th assessment report (main findings) The human activities are responsible of the climate change effect How will be the future? If the countries take actions to reduce the GHG emissions, there will be a peak in the next 10-15 years and later the emissions should declance to a 85% of the 1990 levels (in 2050) With the current technologies it´s possible to achieve it! We don´t have to wait to develop some others new 6 13/06/2014

7 7 13/06/2014 Political negotiation, 1990 As a consequence of the first IPCC report at the end of 1990s it was created the Intergovernmental Committee to negotiate a Convention about climate changes issues But the negotiation is very difficult because the needed changes to solve the problem meant drastic changes in the current economies of all countries and it was needed the implementation of unpopular measures Those changes would affected energy sector, transport, industrial, agricultural and forestry= the whole economy

8 8 13/06/2014 Differences between countries The most difficult problem: the countries which must achieve a solution had a very different economies Developed countries didnt want their economies to be stopped and developing countries didnt want have limits to their development and insisted that it was a problem created by the developing countries! Finally: principle of common but differentiated responsibilities

9 9 13/06/2014 UNFCCC, United Nation Framework Convention on Climate Change, 1994 In 1992 is written and accepted. It is offered to sign in at the Rio Earth Summit In 1994 entered into force. Now there are189 parties. Objective: To control the atmosphere concentrations of GHG in a level to avoid dangerous interferences with the humanity And that must happen in a period of time enough to allow the adaptation

10 10 13/06/2014 Included gases CO2 Carbon Dioxide CH4 Methane N2O Nitrous Oxide HFCs Hydrofluocarbons PFCs Perfluorinated hydrocarbons SF6 Sulphur hexafluoride Resources: energy sector, including transport, housing sector, agricultural, deforestation some kinds of industrial process.

11 11 13/06/2014 Parties (countries) forming the Convention Annex I: developed countries: obligatory commitments to reduce their emissions Annex II: The 24 highly developed countries, In addition to reducing their emissions, are also required to financially support the effort of the developing countries. With transition economies: Most countries in Eastern Europe and ex URSS Non Annex I: developing countries. They have general commitments to respond to climate change, with fewer specific commitments (give information about their steps taken, mainly)

12 12 13/06/2014 Subsidiary Bodies, COP, MOP, … There is an annual meeting between parties, named Conference of the Parties (COP) and MOP (Meeting of Parties) for the Kioto Protocol The convention and KP is supported for two subsidiary bodies: Subsidiary body for Scientific and Technological Advise (SBSTA) Subsidiary Body of Implementation (SBI) The subsidiary bodies have two annual meeting, one in the COP and the other around May

13 13 13/06/2014 Decisions making process for UNFCCC bodies

14 14 13/06/2014 COPs COP 1: Berlin (Germany) 1995 COP 2: Geneva (Switzerland) 1996 COP 3: Kyoto (Japan) 1997 COP 4: Buenos Aires (Argentina) 1998 COP 5: Bonn (Germany) 1999 COP 6: The Hague (Netherlands) and Bonn (Germany) 2000 COP 7: Marrakech (Morocco) 2001 COP 8: New Delhi (India) 2002 COP 9: Milan (Italy) 2003 COP 10: Buenos Aires (Argentina) 2004 COP 11/ MOP 1: Montreal (Canada) 2005 COP 12/ MOP 2: Nairobi (Kenya) 2006 COP13/MOP 3: Bali (Indonesia) 2007

15 15 13/06/2014 Kyoto Protocol In 1997, in COP3, in Kyoto, after three years of negotiations, the Convention adopts a Protocol= an international agreement that stands on its own but is linked to an existing treaty. The Protocol establishes stronger commitments than the Convention, and more complex details. There is a first commitment period (2008-12) in which the developed countries must reduce their emissions at least 5% from theirs in 1990 It entered into force in 2001 after more than 55 countries, with more than 55% of the total emissions, had ratified it. USA, although it was involved in its development hasn't ratified it. Australia decided to signed it recently

16 16 13/06/2014 Kyoto Protocol cont. It´s the second step after the Convention It sets legally binding targets and timetables for cutting developed country emissions It highlights effective domestic policies and measures for reducing emissions The Protocol encourages governments to work together KP assigns a national target to each country There are three flexible mechanisms: emissions trading, clean development mechanism (CDM) and Join Implementation (JI)

17 17 13/06/2014 Flexible Mechanisms Emission Trading Scheme, allow industrialized countries to buy and sell emissions among themselves CDM: Clean Developed Mechanism, provide credit (CERs) for financing emissions- reducing or emissions-avoiding project in developing countries. JI: Joint Implementation, offer emission reduction units for financing projects in other developed countries, with economies in transition

18 18 13/06/2014 Reductions commitments

19 19 13/06/2014 Challenges To achieve bigger reductions of GHG emissions To continue advancing in the scientific knowledge To enhance the public support to the adaptation and mitigation measures It is necessary continuing the path that the KP has began, not only to reduce emissions but to achieve a sustainable development along the world.

20 20 13/06/2014 Challenges for the future (as trade unions) Main: to follow with the road that began with the DP and reduce the GHG emissions worldwide. Analysis the consequences of CC on employment in general, at the sectoral and local/regional level Analysis the consequences on the employment of the measures and policies putting in place due to climate change. Enhance the policies for adaptation and mitigation policies Remind!!: There are some years to act and avoid the worst effects of climate change

21 21 13/06/2014 The Bali Roadmap There have been recognized several building blocks for the new agreement: Emission reductions Adaptation Technology Financing of the climate policies Probably there will be two parallel process: Negotiations for the Kioto Protocol for +2012 Process for the all countries (Dialogue) Both process must finish in 2009 (to have enough time for countries to sign it)

22 Thank you!! Ana Belén Sánchez 22 13/06/2014

23 23 13/06/2014 The 4th assessment report. Observed changes

24 Comparision of temperatures 24 13/06/2014

25 25 13/06/2014 The 4th assessment report: projections for the future

26 26 13/06/2014 Who are the biggest emisors?

27 27 13/06/2014 The Bali Roadmap must be: A possible, necessary and just agreement To be accepted by all countries Enough to achieve the objective of the Convention (reduce emissions) Don´t produce damage anyone Based on the scientific knowledge (IPCC) Flexible enough To have an agreement ready for 2013, the negotiations have to finish in 2009 and to get it in Bali have to define the main lines of the that agreement. That is the Bali Roadmap To take into account: if the necessary reductions of GHG emissions are late, later, it will be necessary to have reductions much higher The future: the roadmap to Bali

28 28 13/06/2014 ¿How could be a Kioto Protocol II? The new agreement should: To limit the increased temperature to 2ºC (According with the IPCC scenarios), reduce 85% the GHG emissions in 2050) that means to have an increased of temperatures with consequences manageable To assure, specially, the capacity of developing countries to adapt to the changes All countries must go into the agreement according the Convention´s principle common but differentiated responsibilities according with their capacity (social and economic state of development) Developed countries: reductions more ambitious than current (30% for 2020 y 85% for 2050, following the European commitments) Developing countries: the most advanced countries have to adopt measures to stabilize, control or prevent the GHG emissions through objectives of renewables, energy efficiency or avoiding deforestation and developing a public transport system

29 29 13/06/2014 Criteria for the burden sharing Always according with the Convention´s principle Taking into account equity criteria (according the social and economic development): Diffuse sectors: the emissions per capita base The industrial sectors: to the emissions trading system with benchmarking sectoral (CO2/t product) when is possible and auctioning. Always with the Best Available Technologies Adjustment indicators to take into account the differences with number of people, density, size of country (transport) and the kind of energy system

30 30 13/06/2014 How to encourage developing countries to control their emissions? It will be respect the right to develop It will be transferred the most modern technology and less emissions producer It will be make easier the flow of funding and investment to developing countries They will control their emissions taken into account: Their capacities The help (resources) that they will receive Their national priorities Their respect for the right to their economic growth

31 31 13/06/2014 Building blocks for the future regime Carbon price To follow with the carbon market through the CDM Adaptation: to find ways for the financing We have to think best ways to establish frameworks to help to establish R&D programs at the national, regional level and different ways to share these new findings (technologies…) Incentives to investments Deforestation control and CO2 sinks BUNKERS (Aviation and maritime emissions)

32 32 13/06/2014 Social issues that must be develop in the CC agenda What kind of social cost will mean the necessary changes in our way of life (production and consumption) to fight against CC? How will be distribute the mitigation costs? (according with the IPCC, 0,12% GDP in 2030)? How can be minimized the distributive effects of CC policies among countries and inside each country? How could be enhance the adaptation capacity of the people (workers) but distributing equality the costs? Who will pay for the adaptation costs?(Air conditioned, medicines, renewable energies) How could be much more taken into account the social consequences of CC in the international negotiations? Others…

33 33 13/06/2014 Employment in the future agreement JUST TRANSITION The new agreement must be taken into account and analyze the different evolution that could be possible linked to the emissions reductions and assure that there will be a smooth transition process. Therefore we need to have: Effects on the employment because of CC (emigrations because of environmental reasons, unemployment in those sectors climate sensitive) Effects on the employment due to the implementation of the adaptation measures. Opportunities Effects on the employment due to mitigation efforts. Opportunity and risks The whole measures must be taken into account the most vulnerable (poorest, elderly, youths...) It´s necessary to establish the social dialogue as an important instrument at every level to evaluate each policy and measure that will take place because of CC, advance the effects and propose solutions. And training and social protections.

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