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1 Introduction to the Climate Change Regime: the Role of the GEF By Bonizella Biagini Program Manager Climate Change Adaptation Global Environment Facility.

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Presentation on theme: "1 Introduction to the Climate Change Regime: the Role of the GEF By Bonizella Biagini Program Manager Climate Change Adaptation Global Environment Facility."— Presentation transcript:

1 1 Introduction to the Climate Change Regime: the Role of the GEF By Bonizella Biagini Program Manager Climate Change Adaptation Global Environment Facility IFAD Workshop, May 2007

2 2 Scientific Evidence and UNFCCC l 1988 Scientific Conference in Toronto l 1988 the IPCC was established l FAR 1990 l SAR 1995 l TAR 2001 Balance of evidence l Last IPCC report 2007 Unequivocal

3 3 International Policy Response l 1992 UNCED (UNFCCC, CBD) l UNFCCC entered into force in 1994 l First COP in 1995 Berlin l Last COP 12 in Nairobi –Kyoto Protocol 1997 –Marrakech Accords 2001

4 4 Climate Change Regime under the Convention and Role of the GEF l UNFCCC l Non Legally Binding Commitments l Role of the GEF as Financial Mechanism l Enabling Activities l Short term and Long term activities l Mitigation operational programs l OP5,6,7 and later 11

5 5 Kyoto Protocol l Legally Binding Commitments for Annex I Countries l Flexibility Mechanisms –JI –Emission Trading –Clean Development Mechanism (no role for GEF) Establishment of the Adaptation Fund (potential role for GEF)

6 6 Marrakech Accords (2001) under the Convention (not the KP) l Establishment of the new climate change funds: –The LDCF and –The SCCF The COP asked the GEF to manage the new climate change funds

7 7 Evolution of the UNFCCC and the Climate Regime l From the early 1990s to the year 2000 the discussions under the UNFCCC were focused on cc mitigation => how to address the causes of climate change l Developed countries (Annex I) were asked to make inventories of their GHG emissions and to show their commitment to initially stabilize their emissions to the 1990 levels (1992 mtg) in National Communications

8 8 Evolution of the UNFCCC and the Climate Regime (continues) l In Kyoto (2001), Annex I countries were asked to commit to a joint 5% reduction by the year 2012, utilizing 3 flexibility mechanisms. l Developing countries refused to commit to reduce their GHG emissions mainly for 2 reasons: 1.The responsibility of climate change is mostly due to the build up of GHG concentrations through the centuries from industrialized countries; 2.Developing countries need to increase their emissions for basic development needs

9 9 The need for adaptation l In the year 2000, however, both scientific evidence and political consensus brought the need and the urgency for adaptation to the UNFCCC negotiating table as a higher priority. l Besides the new funds, the Marrakech accords also included decision 5/CP.7, which calls for financing adaptation and guidance to the GEF trust fund.

10 1010 GEF Climate Strategy evolves accordingly l The GEF Climate Change Operational Strategy, formerly focused mostly on mitigation, started to evolve consistent to Convention guidance l On adaptation, the GEF followed a staged approach: l Stage I => Vulnerability and Adaptation assessments l Stage II => Capacity building l Stage III => project preparation

11 1 Marrakech accords (COP7) Convention guidance to GEF moved from preparation to implementation l The Strategic priority on Adaptation (SPA) was created within the GEF trust fund l The LDCF and SCCF were established, funds were mobilized and the funds operationalized l And a total of $230 million for adaptation projects on the ground were allocated

12 1212 Thank you For more information GEF Website: my


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