Presentation on theme: "International Business"— Presentation transcript:
1International Business Chapter ThirteenExport and Import Strategies
2Chapter Objectives To introduce the ideas of import and export To identify the elements of export and exporting strategiesTo compare direct and indirect selling of exportingTo identify the elements of import and import strategiesTo discuss the types and roles of third-party intermediaries in exportingTo discuss the role of countertrade in international business
3Introduction: International Trade Strategy International trade consists of(i) exporting (product outflows)(ii) importing (product inflows)In general, trade activities:are a natural extension of a firm’s distribution strategyentail a lower level of risk than licensing or foreign direct investment[continued]
4Exports: goods and services flowing out of a country Exporting: the sale and delivery of goods and services by a firm based in one country to customers residing in a different countryresults in receipts from the customersaffords less control over the marketing functionImports: goods and services flowing into a countryImporting: the purchase of goods and services by a firm based in one country from sellers that reside in a different countryresults in payments to the sellersaffords less control over the production function
5Fig. 13.1: Exporting and Importing in International Business
6Export Strategy• The decision to export must take into account global concentration, global synergies, and global strategic motivations.• Strategic factors affecting the choice of exporting as a mode of entry include:the ownership advantages of the firmthe location advantages of the marketthe internalization advantages of specific assetsthe international experience of the firmthe firm’s ability to differentiate its productsits fit with the overall strategy of the firm
7Strategic Advantages of Exports Increase revenues and profitabilityAchieve economies of scale in production and researchAlleviate excess capacity in domestic operationsMinimize risk (as compared to licensing and foreign direct investment)Diversify marketsExporting requires expertise in dealing with government institutions, particularly customs agencies, as well as the documentation process.
8Characteristics of Exporters Research has shown that:(i) the probability of exporting increases with the size of company revenues(ii) export intensity, i.e., the percent of total revenues generate by exports, is not positively correlated with company sizeWhile large companies are the biggest exporters, small companies expand their export capacity to:increase market share overseasfortify their domestic competitivenessThe risk profile of management and the nature of industry competition are just as relevant as firm size.
9Stages of Export Development Firms tend to move through three phases of export development:pre-engagementinitial exportingadvanced exportingAs they do so, firms tend to:export to a greater number of countriesextend their markets to more distant countriesmove into environments that are increasingly different from those of their home countriesexpect exports to grow as a percent of total salesconsider foreign direct investment as a possible alternative to exporting
11Pitfalls of ExportingProblems, delays, and pitfalls associated with the export process may include:the failure to obtain qualified export counseling and/or marketing intermediariesthe insufficient commitment of top managementthe underestimation of total transaction coststhe poor selection of overseas agents or distributorsthe favoring of domestic markets at the expense of international distributors and customersan unwillingness to make necessary modificationsthe failure to adequately prepare for international dispute resolution
12Designing an Export Strategy To design an effective export strategy, manage-ment must:assess the company’s export potential [examine market opportunities and firm resources]obtain expert counseling on exporting [get both government and specialized assistance]select target markets [passively or proactively pursue market opportunities]formulate and implement an effective strategy [define objectives and tactics and establish schedules and deadlines]
13Fig. 13.3: International Business Transaction Chain
14An Export Business Plan I. Executive Summary: key elementsII. Business History: firm and industry insightsIII. Market Research: target countries & market conditionsIV. Marketing Decisions: marketing mix elementsV. Legal Decisions: legal agreements & protectionVI. Manufacturing and Operations: location & capacityVII. Personnel Strategies: short- & long-term needsVIII. Financial Decisions: funding & riskIX. Implementation Schedule: timelineA detailed export business plan is an essential element in the implementation of a sound yet insightful export strategy.
15The Import Process • Basic types of imports include: industrial and consumer goods and services sought by customers not related to the foreign exporterintermediate goods and services that are part of the customer’s global supply chainThe import documentation process can be both complicated and cumbersome.Import documents are of two types:those that determine whether customs will release a shipmentthose that contain the information necessary for duty assessment and data gathering purposes.At a minimum, the required documents would include an entry manifest, a commercial invoice, and a packing list.
16Strategic Advantages of Imports Decrease costs and increase competitiveness and profitabilitySecure essential inputs and productsSecure higher quality products, supplies, materials, and/or componentsMinimize risk and investmentDiversify suppliersImporting requires expertise in dealing with government institutions, particularly customs agencies, as well as the documentation process.
17Types of Industrial Importers The three basic types of industrial importers are:those that opportunistically look for any product around the world that will generate a positive cash flowthose that look to foreign sourcing as a means to minimize product coststhose that use foreign sourcing as part of their global supply chain strategyAn import broker is a certified specialist who obtains required government permissions and other clearances before forwarding the necessary documents to the carrier(s) of the goods.
18The Role of Customs Agencies Customs agencies: government bureaus charged with collecting duties and ensuring that trade restrictions are enforced and procedures ad-hered toThe primary duties of a customs agency are:the assessment and collection of all duties, taxes, and fees on imported productsthe enforcement of customs and related laws, and the administration of certain navigation laws and treatiesNational customs agencies are increasingly involved in dealing with smuggling operations and preventing foreign terrorist attacks.
19The Role of Customs Brokers Customs broker: an independent agent who executes customs transactions on behalf of clients for a fee• A customs broker can help minimize duties by:valuing products in such a way that they qualify for more favorable treatmentdeferring duties by using bonded warehouses and foreign trade zoneslimiting liability by properly marking the country of origin of an imported productqualifying for duty refunds through *drawback provisions*Drawback provisions allow U.S. exporters to apply for a 99% refund of the duty paid on imported components, provided they are incorporated into goods to be exported.
20An Import Business Plan I. Executive Summary: key elementsII. Business History: firm details and industry insightsIII. Market Research: target country & market conditionsIV. Marketing Decisions: marketing mix strategyV. Legal Decisions: legal agreements & protectionVI. Manufacturing and Operations: location & regulationsVII. Personnel Strategies: expertise & hiring needsVIII. Financial Decisions: funding, financial, & tax issuesIX. Implementation Schedule: timelineA detailed import business plan is an essential element in the implementation of a sound yet insightful import strategy.
21The Export ProcessDirect exports: goods and services sold directly to an independent party (foreign customer) outside of the exporter’s home countryIndirect exports: goods and services sold to or via an intermediary in the domestic market, who in turn sells them to a foreign customerThird-party intermediaries: independent, i.e., unrelated, firms that facilitate international trade transactions by assisting both importers and exportersThe export documentation process can be both complicated and cumbersome.
22Indirect Selling/Exporting Indirect selling/exporting: selling products to or through an independent (third-party) intermediary• Export intermediaries may perform any or all of the following functions:stimulate sales, obtain orders, and conduct market researchperform credit investigations and payment-collection activitieshandle foreign traffic arrangements and shipping detailsprovide support for a client’s sales, distribution, and promotion staffWhile services are more likely to be exported on a direct basis, goods are exported via both avenues.
23Indirect Selling: Export Management Companies Export management company (EMC): a firm that either acts as a manufacturer’s agent or buys merchandise from manufacturers for inter-national distributionEMCs generally operate on a contractual basis, provide exclusive representation in a well-defined foreign territory, and act as the export arm of a manufacturer.Although many EMCs are small, they often specialize according to product, function, and/or market area.EMCs may not be the perfect solution if they may have too few resources, give too little attention, and/or take too much control.
24Indirect Selling: Export Trading Companies Export trading company (ETC): a large, indepen-dent broker whose primary purpose is to match suppliers to foreign customers for a fee• ETCs operate primarily on the basis of demand.• Exporters from Great Britain, the Netherlands, and Japan long ago realized that wide-reaching trading companies could market and distribute products more efficiently than any single producer could.• ETCs based in the U.S. are exempt from antitrust provisions to allow them to better penetrate foreign markets by collaborating with other U.S. firms.
25Direct SellingDirect selling: exporting through sales representatives to distributors, foreign retailers, or final end usersDirect selling:gives exporters greater control over the marketing functionoffers exporters the potential to earn higher profitsa sales representative: a company representative, who usually operates on a commission basis within an exclusive territorya distributor: a merchant who purchases goods from a manufacturer and stocks, services, and resells them to retailers at a profit[continued]
26• A firm that has sufficient financial and managerial resources to export directly may adopt a variety of organizational structures ranging from a separate international division to a fully integrated matrix structure.• Direct selling demands a separate international sales force because foreign markets demand different types of expertise.• Internet marketing allows firms both large and small to quickly, easily, and inexpensively engage in direct marketing.
27Export Documentation Key export documents include: a pro forma invoice an outline of the terms of sale, price, and delivery detailsa commercial invoicea detailed invoice used to assess dutiesa bill of ladinga detailed receipt from the carrier transporting the cargoa consular invoicesometimes required as a means to monitor importsa certificate of originused to determine the tariff schedulea shipper’s export declarationused to monitor exports and compile trade statisticsan export packing listused to determine the nature of the cargo
28Foreign Freight Forwarders Foreign freight forwarder: an international trade specialist who assists in the delivery of goods from producer to customerIntermodal transportation: the movement of goods across a variety of modes from origin to destinationThe typical freight forwarder is the largest export intermediary in terms of the weight and value of cargo handled.Freight forwarders may specialize in the type of mode used or the geographical area served.Recent trends leading to a preference for air freight over ocean freight include:the need for more frequent shipmentslighter-weight shipmentshigh-value shipments
29Sources of Foreign Trade Assistance Firms typically have many sources of assistance for identifying their best foreign trade opportunities.Government agencies actively aid the efforts of potential and active exporters and, to a lesser extent, potential and active importers.In Japan, the Ministry of International Trade and Industry (MITI) plays a vital role in developing strategic trade policy and providing operational assistance.In the U.S., a number of institutions, most notably the Department of Commerce, the Ex-Im Bank, and the Small Business Administration (SBA) help firms identify and realize export opportunities.
30Types of Foreign Trade Information by Source U.S. Government AgenciesMarket demographics, channels and joint venture partners, customs regulations & tax issues, credit & insurance, trade events & leads, documentation requirements, quotationsTrade Associations and Trade GroupsMarket demographics, promotion alternatives, channels, customs regulations & tax issuesExport IntermediariesChannels, host-country requirements, financing, credit & insurance, logistics
31Countertrade Countertrade: a reciprocal flow of goods and services The two basic types of countertrade transactions include:barter [based on clearing arrangements used to avoid money-based exchange]buybacks, offsets, and counterpurchase [all of which are used to impose reciprocal commitments]Countertrade provides a means to complete a trans-action when a firm (or government):lacks sufficient funds to pay for importslacks sufficient convertible currency or sufficient hard currency to pay for imports
32Countertrade: Barter and Buybacks Barter: the exchange of goods or services for other goods and services, i.e., a non-monetary transaction[Barter is not only the oldest form of countertrade, it is the oldest form of any type of trade transaction.]Buybacks: counter-deliveries received as payment by the exporter that are related to or originate from the original exported product• The disadvantages of countertrade include:̶ transaction inefficiencies̶ transaction risk̶ transaction complexities
33Countertrade: Offsets Offset trade: an exchange of goods or services for cash that includes a reciprocal commitment to find opportunities for the importer to earn hard currency[similar to counterpurchase, but permitting flexibility in the choice of firm for fulfilling the reciprocal obligation]In offset trade, the exporter sells the product for cash, but then undertakes the promotion of exports from the importing country in order to help it earn foreign exchange.Offset arrangements are usually one of two types:direct offsets: include generated business that directly relates to the export productindirect offsets: include generated business unrelated to the exported product
35Implications/Conclusions Exporting and importing are necessary functions for the implementation of firms’ international business strategies.The specialization of labor makes exporting to and importing from countries around the world more efficient than manufacturing every product in every country.[continued]
36• “Born global” companies tend to make ex-porting a primary goal from the time of their inception. • The import process involves strategic and procedural issues that largely mirror those of the export process.