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© 2005 Prentice Hall8-1 Chapter 8 Exporting, Importing, and Sourcing Power Point by Kris Blanchard North Central University
© 2005 Prentice Hall 8-2 Introduction Export Selling vs. Export Marketing –Export selling involves selling the same product, at the same price, with the same promotional tools in a different place –Export marketing tailors the marketing mix to international customers
© 2005 Prentice Hall 8-3 Introduction Requirements for Export Marketing –An understanding of the target market environment –The use of market research and identification of market potential –Decisions concerning product design, pricing, distribution and channels, advertising, and communications
© 2005 Prentice Hall 8-4 Organizational Export Activities The firm is unwilling to export; it will not even fill an unsolicited export order The firm fills unsolicited export orders but does not pursue unsolicited orders. Such a firm is an export seller. The firm explores the feasibility of exporting (this stage may bypass Stage 2). The firm exports to one or more markets on a trial basis.
© 2005 Prentice Hall 8-5 Organizational Export Activities The firm is an experienced exporter to one or more markets After this success, the firm pursues country- or region-focused marketing based on certain criteria The firm evaluates global market potential before screening for the “best” target markets to include in its marketing strategy and plan
© 2005 Prentice Hall 8-6 National Policies Governing Exports and Imports Top 15 Apparel and Textile Exporting Countries to the United States, 2000 ($ billions)
© 2005 Prentice Hall 8-7 Government programs that support Exports Tax incentives Subsidies Governmental assistance
© 2005 Prentice Hall 8-8 Governmental Actions to Discourage Imports and Block Market Access Tariffs Import controls Nontariff barriers –Quotas –Discriminatory procurement policies –Restrictive customs procedures –Arbitrary monetary policies –Restrictive regulations
© 2005 Prentice Hall 8-9 Tariff Systems Single-column tariff –Simplest type of tariff –Schedule of duties in which rate applies to imports from all countries on the same basis Two-column tariff –General duties plus special duties apply
© 2005 Prentice Hall 8-10 Tariff Systems Sample Rates of Duty for U.S. Imports
© 2005 Prentice Hall 8-11 Preferential Tariff Reduced tariff rate applied to imports from certain countries GATT prohibits the use, with 3 exceptions: –Historical preference arrangements already existed –Preference is part of formal economic integration treaty –Industrial countries are permitted to grant preferential market access to LDCs
© 2005 Prentice Hall 8-12 Customs Duties Ad valorem duty –Expressed as percentage of value of goods Specific duty –Expressed as specific amount of currency per unit of weight, volume, length, or other units of measurement Compound or mixed duties –Apply both ad valorem and specific on the same items
© 2005 Prentice Hall 8-13 Other Duties and Import Charges Anti-dumping Duties –Dumping is the sale of merchandise in export markets at unfair prices –Special import charges equal to the dumping margin Countervailing duties Variable Import Levies Temporary Surcharges
© 2005 Prentice Hall 8-14 Key Export Participants Foreign purchasing agents Export brokers Export merchants Export management companies Export distributor Export commission representative Cooperative exporter Freight forwarders Manufacturer’s export representatives
© 2005 Prentice Hall 8-15 Organizing for Exporting in the Manufacturer’s Country Exports can be handled –As a part-time activity performed by domestic employees –Through an export partner –Through an export department –Through an export department within an international division –For multi-divisional companies, each possibility exists for each division
© 2005 Prentice Hall 8-16 Organizing for Exporting in the Market Country Direct market representation –Advantages: control and communications Representation by independent intermediaries –Advantages: best for situations with small sales volume
© 2005 Prentice Hall 8-17 Export Financing and Methods of Payment Documentary credits (letter of credit) Documentary collections (bill of exchange) Cash in advance Sales on open account Sales on consignment basis
© 2005 Prentice Hall 8-18 Flow Chart of Documentary Credit
© 2005 Prentice Hall 8-19
© 2005 Prentice Hall 8-20 Sourcing Must emphasize benefits of sourcing from country other than home country Must assess vision and values of company leadership Advantage can be gained by –Concentrating some of the marketing activities in a single location –Leveraging company’s know-how –Tapping opportunities for product development and R&D
© 2005 Prentice Hall 8-21 Factors that Affect Sourcing Management Vision Factor costs and conditions Customer Needs Logistics Country infrastructure Political risk Exchange rate, availability, and convertibility of local money
© 2005 Prentice Hall 8-22 Looking Ahead to Chapter 9 Global Market Entry Strategies: Licensing, Investment, and Strategic Alliances
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