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Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. 13 Selecting and Managing Entry Modes.

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Presentation on theme: "Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. 13 Selecting and Managing Entry Modes."— Presentation transcript:

1 Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. 13 Selecting and Managing Entry Modes

2 Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Chapter Objectives Explain how companies use exporting, importing, and countertrade Explain the various means of financing export and import activities Describe the different contractual entry modes that are available to companies Explain the various types of investment entry modes Discuss the important strategic factors in selecting an entry mode

3 Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Marvel Enterprises Licenses characters for films and products Earns royalties from licensing agreements

4 Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Exports to the United States Source: Based on data contained in International Trade Statistics 2011 (Geneva, Switzerland: World Trade Organization, November 2011), Table II.30, p. 81–82.

5 Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Step 1Step 2 Identify a potential market Match needs to abilities Step 3 Initiate meetings Developing an Export Strategy Step 4 Commit resources

6 Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Degree of Export Involvement Direct exporting (sell to buyers) Indirect exporting (sell to intermediary) Sales representative Distributor Sales representative Distributor Agent Export management company Export trading company Agent Export management company Export trading company

7 Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Avoiding Export Blunders Conduct market research Obtain export advice Hire a freight forwarder

8 Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Discussion Question What are the four steps companies can follow when building an export strategy?

9 Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Answer to Discussion Question First, a firm should identify a potential market through careful market research and analysis. Second, it should match the needs of the market to its ability to satisfy those needs. Third, it should initiate meetings with potential distributors, buyers, and others. Fourth, it should commit human, financial, and physical resources to get the job done.

10 Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Forms of Countertrade Barter Counterpurchase Offset agreement Switch trading Buyback Direct exchange without money Sale to a nation in return for promise of future purchase from that nation Offset a hard-currency sale to a nation with future hard-currency purchase Sale by a company of an obligation to purchase from a country Export of industrial equipment in return for products that the equipment produces

11 Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Barter in Argentina Agencia el Universal/El Universal de Mexico/Newscom Barter (Trueque) in Argentina Clothing, food, cars, etc.

12 Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Export/Import Financing

13 Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. High Risk Methods Exporter bills importer after merchandise ships Importer pays exporter before merchandise ships Open accountAdvance payment

14 Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Documentary Collection Bank acts as intermediary without accepting financial risk Draft (bill of exchange) Document that orders an importer to pay an exporter a specific sum of money at a specific time Bill of lading Contract between an exporter and shipper specifying destination and shipping costs for merchandise

15 Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Documentary Collection Process

16 Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Letter of Credit Importer’s bank issues a document stating that the bank will pay the exporter when exporter fulfills document’s terms  Irrevocable  Revocable  Confirmed

17 Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Letter of Credit Process

18 Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Discussion Question Export/import financing whereby a bank acts as an intermediary without accepting financial risk is called __________. a. Offset financing b. Letter of credit c. Documentary collection

19 Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Answer to Discussion Question Export/import financing whereby a bank acts as an intermediary without accepting financial risk is called __________. a. Offset financing b. Letter of credit c. Documentary collection

20 Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Licensing Advantages + Finance expansion + Reduce risks + Reduce counterfeits + Upgrade technologies – Restrict licensor’s activities – Reduce global consistency – Lend strategic property Disadvantages Company owning intangible property (licensor) grants another firm (licensee) the right to use it for a specific time

21 Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Franchising Advantages + Low cost and low risk + Rapid expansion + Local knowledge – Cumbersome – Lost flexibility Disadvantages Company (franchiser) supplies another (franchisee) with intangible property over an extended period

22 Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Management Contract Company supplies another with managerial expertise for a specific period of time Advantages + Few assets risked + Nations finance projects + Develops local workforce Disadvantages – Personnel at risk – Create competitor

23 Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Turnkey Project Advantages + Firms specialize in competency + Nations obtain infrastructure – Politicized process – Create competitor Disadvantages Company designs, constructs, and tests a production facility for a client

24 Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Discussion Question In what ways does franchising differ from licensing?

25 Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Answer to Discussion Question First, franchising gives a company greater control over the sale of its product in a target market than does licensing. Second, franchising is primarily used in the service sector, whereas licensing is common in manufacturing industries. Third, franchising requires ongoing assistance from the franchiser, but licensing normally involves a one-time transfer of property.

26 Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Wholly Owned Subsidiary Facility entirely owned and controlled by a single parent company Advantages + Day-to-day control + Coordinate subsidiaries Disadvantages – Expensive – High risk

27 Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Joint Venture Company created and jointly owned by two or more entities to achieve a common objective Advantages  Reduce risk level  Penetrate markets  Access channels Disadvantages  Partner conflict  Lose control

28 Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Joint Venture Configurations Source: Based on Peter Buckley and Mark Casson, “A Theory of Cooperation in International Business,” in Farok J. Contractor and Peter Lorange (eds.), Cooperative Strategies in International Business (Lexington, MA: Lexington Books, 1988), pp. 31–53.

29 Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Strategic Alliance Disadvantages Partner conflict Create competitor Advantages Share project cost Tap competitors’ strengths Gain channel access Entities cooperate (but do not form a separate company) to achieve strategic goals of each

30 Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Selecting Partners  Commitment  Trustworthiness  Cultural knowledge  Valuable contribution

31 Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Strategic Factors Cultural environment Political/Legal environments Market size Production and shipping costs International experience

32 Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Discussion Question An investment entry mode that gives a company the most control over day-to- day activities in a host country is called a __________. a. Joint venture b. Strategic alliance c. Wholly owned subsidiary

33 Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Answer to Discussion Question An investment entry mode that gives a company the most control over day-to- day activities in a host country is called a __________. a. Joint venture b. Strategic alliance c. Wholly owned subsidiary

34 All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without the prior written permission of the publisher. Printed in the United States of America. Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc


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