Presentation on theme: "Global Manufacturing and Materials Management"— Presentation transcript:
1Global Manufacturing and Materials Management CHAPTER 16Global Manufacturing and Materials Management
2Learning ObjectivesWhat are the factors that affect the decision to choose global manufacturing site?What is the role of cost pressures and pressures for local responsiveness in the choice of manufacturing location?
3Learning ObjectivesWhat is meant by flexible manufacturing? How does it achieve low cost and product customization?Make or Buy? What are the tradeoffs?Role of outsourcing
4Chapter Focus Examine: Where in the world should productive activities be located?What should be the long term strategic role of foreign production sites?Should the firm own foreign production sites or outsource those activities to independent vendors?How should a globally diverse supply chain be managed and what is the role of the Internet in managing global logistics?Should the firm manage global logistics itself or outsource the management to enterprises that specialize in this activity?
5Strategy, Manufacturing, and Logistics FocusProductionLogisticsPerformedinternationallyTo lower costs of value creationAdd value by better serving customer needs
6Materials ManagementMaterials Management: the activity that controls the transmission of physical materials through the value chain, from procurement through production and into distribution.Logistics: the procurement and and physical transmission of material through the supply chain, from suppliers to customers.
7Manufacturing and Materials Management - Strategic Objectives - Lower costs.Increase product quality.Total Quality Management.Increases productivity.Lowers rework and scrap costs.Lowers warranty costs.Accommodate demands for local responsiveness.Respond quickly to shifts in customer demand.
8The Relationship Between Quality and Costs LowersRework andScrap CostsIncreasesProductivityWarranty andRework CostsImprovesPerformanceReliabilityService CostsManufacturingCostsProfitsFigure 16.1
9Where to Manufacture Country Factors Technological Product Locating ManufacturingFacilities
10Country Factors Political economy. Culture. Relative factor costs. Global concentrations of activity.Skilled labor pools.Supporting industries.Formal and informal trade barriers.Transportation costs.Rules regarding FDI.Exchange rate movements.
12A Typical Unit Cost Curve Unit CostsVolumeMinimum Efficient ScaleFigure 16.2
13Product Factors and Location Strategies Two product features affect location decisions:Value to weight ratio.Product serves universal needs.Two strategies for locating manufacturing facilities:Concentration.Decentralization.
15Manufacturing Location Factor costs have substantial impact.Low trade barriers.Externalities favor certain locations.Stable exchange rates.Minimum efficient scale is high and flexible manufacturing technologies available.Product’s value-to-weight ration is high.Product serves universal needs.Concentration.
16Manufacturing Location Factor costs do not have substantial impact.High trade barriers.Location externalities unimportant.Exchange rate volatility.Production technology has low fixed costs, low minimum efficient scale, flexible manufacturing technology unavailable.Product has low value-to-weight ratio.Product does not serve universal needs.Decentralization
17Location Strategy and Manufacturing Technological FactorsFlexible manufacturing technology Available Not AvailableMinimum efficient scale High LowFixed costs High LowProduct FactorsServes universal needs Yes NoValue-to-weight ration High LowCountry FactorsDifferences in factor costs Substantial FewSubstantial FewTrade barriers Few ManyDifferences in political economyDifferences in culture Substantial FewConcentrated DecentralizedFavored Manufactured StrategyTable 16.1
18Strategic Role of Foreign Factories Initially, established where labor costs low.Later, important centers for design and final assembly.Upward migration caused by:Pressure to improve cost structure.Pressure to customize product to meet customer demand.Increasing abundance of advanced factors of production.Dispersed Centers of Excellence are consistent with a Transnational Strategy
19Make or Buy Make Buy Proprietary Product Technology Protection Lower costsProprietaryProductTechnologyProtectionFacilitatingspecializedinvestmentsImprovedschedulingBuyStrategicflexibilityLowercostsOffsetsTrade-offs
20Coordinating a Global Manufacturing System Materials management (includes logistics):Activities necessary to get materials from suppliers to manufacturer, to distribution system, to end user.Achieve lowest possible cost that meets customer’s needs.Power of ‘Just-in-Time’:Economize on inventory holding costs.Drawback: no buffer inventory.
21Role of Information Technology and the Internet Track component parts to assembly plant.Optimize production scheduling.Ability to accelerate (or slow) production.Electronic data interchange coordinates flow through into/through manufacturing to customers.Suppliers, shippers, and purchasing firms can communicate with each other without delay.Flexibility and responsiveness.Paperwork is decreased.