Presentation on theme: "Chapter 29 – Our Solar System"— Presentation transcript:
1 Chapter 29 – Our Solar System "The earth is the cradle of humankind, but one cannot live in the cradle forever."-- Konstantin Tsiolkovsky, 1895
2 29.1 Overview of our solar system OBJECTIVESDescribe early models of our solar system.Examine the modern heliocentric model of our solar system.Relate gravity to the motions of celestial bodies.
3 Geocentric ,meaning “Earth Centered” Early IdeasGeocentric ,meaning “Earth Centered”In the early 1500s, Nicholas Copernicus formulated the heliocentric model of the solar system.
4 CopernicusNicolaus Copernicus found that in a heliocentric model of the solar system,the inner planets move faster in their orbits than the outer planets,giving the appearance from Earth that some planets move in a retrograde motion.(http://imagine.gsfc.nasa.gov/Images/people/Copernicus.gif )
5 Retrograde MotionRetrograde motion is the movement of a planet in an opposing direction across the sky.
6 GalileoGalileo’s discovery of Jupiter’s moons proved that not all celestial bodies orbit Earth; therefore, Earth is not necessarily the center of the solar system.
7 Kepler’s First LawKepler’s first law demonstrates that each planet has an elliptical orbit of unique size and shape with the Sun at one focus.
8 Earth’s average distance from the Sun: 1.496 x 108 km AUEarth’s average distance from the Sun: x 108 kmor 1 astronomical unit.
9 Planets’ OrbitsAll of the planets (& former planets) and their satellites orbit the Sun in the same direction, and all their orbits, except Pluto's lie near the same plane.
10 EccentricityWhen a planet is closest to the sun in its orbit, it is at ____________ and when it is farthest from the sun, it is at _________.perihelionaphelion
11 Ellipses Terms to be familiar with. Major axis Foci Semi-major axis PerihelionSunAphelion
12 Eccentricitye =Distance between fociMajor axis length
13 Kepler’s Second LawCloser FasterFarther slowerKepler’s second law is an imaginary line between the Sun and a planet that sweeps out equal amounts of area in equal amounts of time.
14 Center of MassIsaac Newton determined that each planet does not orbit the Sun but instead orbits a center of mass between it and the Sun.
16 29.2 The Terrestrial Planets OBJECTIVESDescribe the properties of the terrestrial planets.Compare Earth with the other terrestrial planets.
17 PrecessionThe wobble of the Earth’s rotational axis is called precession.The Moon’s gravitational force on Earth causes the sideways push that is responsible for precession.
18 Mariner 10 image of Mercury has the largest day-night temperature difference of all the planets in the solar system.Mariner 10 image of Mercury
19 VenusVenus - Computer Simulated Global View Centered at 180 Degrees East Longitudeis the planet most similar to Earth in physical properties, such as diameter, mass, and density.
20 Venus (more)The high concentration of carbon dioxide (CO2) in the atmosphere of Venus inhibits infrared radiation from escaping and keeps the surface extremely hot.
21 Image by Reto Stöckli (land surface, shallow water, clouds). EarthImage by Reto Stöckli (land surface, shallow water, clouds).is the only known planet in our solar system where H2O is present in three states, solid, liquid & gas.
22 Terrestrialplanets are close to the size of Earth and have solid and rocky surfaces, while the gas giant planets are larger, more gaseous, and lack solid surface.
24 Atmospheric conditions of the four terrestrial planets MercuryVenusEarthMarsthick cloudsprimarily of carbon dioxide and nitrogenInclude sulfuric acidalmost non-existentmostly oxygen and sodiumthin and there is consistent wind.composition is similar to Venus’smoderately densecomposed of 78% nitrogen and 21% oxygenEarthMercuryVenusMars
25 29.3 The Gas Giant Planets OBJECTIVES Describe the properties of the gas giant planet.Identify the unique nature of the object “formerly-known-as-the-Planet-Pluto”.
27 29.3 the object “formerly-known-as-the-Planet-Pluto”. 27
28 CompositionThe gas giants are composed primarily of lightweight elements, such as hydrogen, helium & methane.SaturnUranusJupiterNeptune
29 Rapid RotationThe rapid rotation of the largest gas giant Jupiter, causes its clouds to flow in alternating cloud types called belts and zones.JupiterBelts are low, warm, dark-colored clouds that sink. Zones are high, cool , light-colored clouds that rise.
30 Blue ColorNeptune and Uranus , the two gas giants appear blue because of the methane in their atmosphere.UranusNeptune
31 NeptuneNeptune has clouds and atmospheric belts and zones similar to those of Saturn and Jupiter.Neptune
32 Pluto’s EccentricityPluto’s orbit is so eccentric that while at perihelion, Pluto is closer to the Sun than Neptune is.Pluto's orbit seen from the plane of the ecliptic, showing its high inclination compared to the other planetsThe eccentric orbit of Pluto is 50 AU from the Sun at aphelion and almost 30 AU from the Sun at perihelion.
33 Terrestrial and the Gas giant planets Both are categories of the planets of our solar systemGas giant planetsTerrestrial planetsfour planets close to the SunMercury, Venus, Earth, and Marssolid, rocky surfacessmallerfarther from the SunJupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptunemore gaseouslack a solid surfacelarger
35 29.4 Formation of Our Solar System OBJECTIVESDescribe how the planets formed from a disk surrounding the young sun.Explore remnants of solar system formation.
36 Interstellar CloudInterstellar cloud, a cloud of gas and dust from which stars and planets are formed.
37 Solar Nebula TheoryInterstellar cloud can condense and become concentrated enough to form a star and possibly planets.The dense concentration of gas at the center of the solar nebula eventually became the Sun.
38 PlanetismalsPlanetismals are tiny grains of condensed material that accumulate and merge together to form these large bodies possibly growing until they reach hundreds of kilometers in diameter.
39 AsteroidsBodies of interplanetary debris that orbit the Sun with most in the area between Mars and Jupiter are called asteroids.
40 CometsComets are small, icy body made of ice and rock that has a highly eccentric orbit around the Sun.The Oort cloud and the Kuiper belt are two cluster of comets.Haley 's comet seen here in It will appear again in 2062.
41 MeteorThe result when Earth intersects a cometary orbit is a meteor shower.
42 MeteorMeteor is interplanetary material that burns up and becomes a bright, glowing streak of light in Earth’s atmosphere.Two examples are the Perseids (August) & Leonid (November).
43 MeteoriteIs interplanetary material that enter’s Earth’s atmosphere and collides with the ground rather than burning up.43