Presentation on theme: "Planets of the Solar System The Moon and Other Bodies"— Presentation transcript:
1Planets of the Solar System The Moon and Other Bodies
2Formation of the Solar System The Solar Nebular TheoryDescribes the origin of our solar systemThe Big Bang describes the origin of the universeAfter the Big Bang, clouds of gas and dust formed nebulasNebulas are the beginning of all new stars.Gravity caused the gas and dust to begin to condense, collide, and heat upWhen the temperature gets hot enough, nuclear fusion begins; the sun was born ~5 billion years ago
3The Inner Planets (4) - The terrestrial planets Mercury:Smallest planet, no satellitesVenus:Venus rotates on its axis opposite all the other planets. This is known as retrograde rotation.Venus is very hot due to runaway greenhouse effect.
4The Inner Planets Earth: Mars: The only planet with liquid water and lifeMars:One Day = One Earth day – Even though Mars is smaller than Earth, one rotation is equal on both planetsThe largest volcano in the solar system is on Mars. The name of the volcano is Olympus Mons
5The Outer Planets (the gas giants) Jupiter:The largest planet, biggest diameter, and its mass is twice all the other planets combined; diameter is 11 times Earth’s diameter“Giant Red Spot” is the most unique feature of Jupiter’s surface; massive storm similar to a hurricaneSaturn:Complex ring system, least dense planet
6The Outer Planets (continued) Uranus:Green color caused by methane in the atmospherePlanet is tilted 90˚Neptune:Farthest planet from the sunBluish-green color with white “clouds” of frozen methanePluto:No longer considered a planetDiscovered by accident in 1930
7The Earth-Moon System Lunar Rotation The moon’s revolution around Earth (29.5 days) and its rotation on its axis (29.5 days) are equal.The part of the moon illuminated by sunlight that we can see from Earth changes as the moon orbits Earth causing phases of the moon.
11Tides on EarthBulges in Earth’s oceans, called tidal bulges, form because the moon’s gravitational pull on Earth.As a result, the ocean on the side of the Earth closest to the moon is pulled toward the moon.Because Earth rotates, tides occur in a regular cycle at any point on Earth’s surface each day as the location passes through a tidal bulge or moves away from a tidal bulge.
14Asteroids Asteroids = Fragments of rock which orbit the sun Asteroids are made of the same materials the planets are composed ofMost asteroids exist in a belt between Mars and Jupiter
15CometsComet = A body of rock, dust, methane, ammonia, and ice which orbits the sun in long ellipsesComets have a head and a tailComets lose mass as they orbit the sun because ice melts when the comet is near the sunThe most famous comet is Halley’s comet. The comet can be seen every years from Earth
16Halley’s CometImage of Halley’s Comet taken from the Mount Wilson Observatory.Halley’s Comet will not be visible from Earth again until 2061.
17MeteroidsMeteoroids = small bits of rock and metal which move randomly through the solar systemMeteor = a meteoroid which enters the Earth’s atmosphereMeteorite = any part of a meteor which remains after it hits the Earth’s surface