Presentation on theme: "THE GILDED AGE OF AMERICAN HISTORY chapter 8 sections 1 & 2."— Presentation transcript:
THE GILDED AGE OF AMERICAN HISTORY chapter 8 sections 1 & 2
When is the GILDED AGE? End of the Civil War until end of centuryEnd of the Civil War until end of century –1865-1900GILDED AGE –1900-1917Progressive Era –1917-1918*WWI –1920sRoaring 20s –1930sGreat Depression –1941-1945*WWII –1945-1989Cold War
What is the GILDED AGE? Time of growth in AmericaTime of growth in America –2 nd Industrial Revolution –Cumulative wealth increases Visible only on the surface Beneath the surfaceBeneath the surface –Unstable economic infrastructure –Immigration issues Poverty & crime –Corruption
GILDED Economics Unhindered capitalismUnhindered capitalism –Social Darwinism –Laissez-faire Adam Smiths Wealth of Nations Free marketplace Government involvementGovernment involvement –Subsidies for key industries –Corruption Credit Mobilier scandal
Credit Mobilier Scandal Government loans given to Union Pacific for TCRRGovernment loans given to Union Pacific for TCRR –Union Pac hires out Credit Mobilier company CM overcharges Union Pac, then bribes key congressmen to keep funds comingCM overcharges Union Pac, then bribes key congressmen to keep funds coming –Not investigated until 1872
GILDED Politics Ending the Spoils systemEnding the Spoils system –Rutherford B. Hayes bucks the trend –James A. Garfield gets shot –Pendleton Civil Service Act Other reformOther reform –RRs were overcharging farmers –Interstate Commerce Commission Standardized shipping rates
Economic Depression, 1893 Part of business cyclePart of business cycle Laissez-faire policiesLaissez-faire policies
Where did Americas workers come from during this time of unusual industrial growth? New farm technology decreased the need for farm laborNew farm technology decreased the need for farm labor Former moving to the cities to escape the poor working conditions in rural America, and…Former farmers moving to the cities to escape the poor working conditions in rural America, and… IMMIGRANTS!
Why did they come? PUSHPUSH –Crop failures –Land shortages –Unemployment –Rising taxes –Political persecution –Religious persecution 1890s pogroms against Russian Jews PULLPULL –Free land Homestead Act –Availability of FACTORY JOBS –Personal freedoms –Educational opps –Not forced to serve long years in Army –Participation in democratic govt American farmers and immigrants contributed to a huge rise in urban population URBANIZATION!
Who was coming to America? 1865-18901865-1890 1 st Wave1 st Wave –10 million from central & NW Europe 3 million from Germany 3 million from British Isles –Looked white, mostly Protestant, blended well
Who was coming to America? 1890-19201890-1920 2 nd Wave2 nd Wave –10 million from southern & eastern Europe 4 million Italians 3 million Jews (mostly Russia) Greeks, Slavs, Armenians –Darker skin, different religions, did not blend in as well
Their Journey 1-3 weeks across Atlantic1-3 weeks across Atlantic –Steerage 70% came thru New York City70% came thru New York City Physical exams upon entrancePhysical exams upon entrance Find familiesFind families –Ghettos Westward migration
Non-Europeans ChineseChinese –Mid-1800s recruitment to railroads –Separate communities –Treated with suspicion –Chinese Exclusion Act 1882, 1892, 1902, permanent until 19431882, 1892, 1902, permanent until 1943 Immigration laws discriminated most against incoming Asians
Non-Europeans JapaneseJapanese –Later than Chinese –1894 treaty granting free entry –200,000 by 1920 Immigration laws discriminated most against incoming Asians
Non-Europeans MexicanMexican –Early 20 th century –New irrigation in SW, labor needed –1910 Mexican Revolution –Immigration Restriction Act of 1921 Did not apply to North Americans