Presentation on theme: "UNIT 1 NOTES Chapter 13 – Expansion of American Industry Chapter 15 –Politics, Immigration, & Urban Life."— Presentation transcript:
UNIT 1 NOTES Chapter 13 – Expansion of American Industry Chapter 15 –Politics, Immigration, & Urban Life
America: Pathways to the Present Chapter 15 Politics, Immigration, and Urban Life (1870–1915)
America: Pathways to the Present Section 1: Politics in the Gilded Age Section 2: People on the Move Section 3: The Challenge of the Cities Section 4: Ideas for Reform Chapter 15: Politics, Immigration, and Urban Life (1870–1915)
Presidents of the United States George Washington; Federalist (1788) John Adams; Federalist (1796) Thomas Jefferson (1800) James Madison (1808) James Monroe (1816) John Quincy Adams (1824) Andrew Jackson; Democrat (1828) Martin Van Buren; Democrat (1836) William Henry Harrison; Whig (1840) John Tyler; Whig (1841) #21 - … Chester A. Arthur; Republican (1881) Grover Cleveland; Democrat (1884) Benjamin Harrison; Republican (1888) Grover Cleveland; Democrat (1892) William McKinley; Republican (1896) Theodore Roosevelt; Republican (1901) # James K. Polk; Democrat (1844) Zachary Taylor; Whig (1848) Millard Fillmore; Whig (1850) Franklin Pierce; Democrat (1852) James Buchanan; Democrat (1856) Abraham Lincoln; Republican (1860) Andrew Johnson; Democrat (1865) Ulysses S. Grant; Republican (1868) Rutherford B. Hayes; Republican (1876) James Garfield; Republican (1880)
OBJECTIVES CORE OBJECTIVE: Explain the changes in late 1800’s urban life relating to Immigration, Industrialization, and Politics in the Gilded Age. Objective 1.1: How did advances in electric power and communication affect people and business in this era? Objective 1.2: Why were industrialists of the era called both “Captains of Industry” and “Robber Barons”? Objective 1.3: How did industrialization impact the growing work force between 1880 and 1900? Objective 1.4: In what ways did government reform the spoils system and regulate railroads? Objective: 1.5 : Analyze the challenges immigrants faced in starting a new life in America. Objective 1.6: How did urban living conditions change as cities rapidly expanded in the late 1800s? THEME: American Industry will grow with positive and negative consequences
Chapter 15 SECTION 1 Politics in the Gilded Age HOW WAS POLITICS AFFECTED BY BUSINESS IN THE LATE 1800S?
The Business of Politics The Gilded Age suggests that there was a glittering layer of prosperity that covered the poverty and corruption in late 1800s society. This term was coined by Mark Twain. In the late 1800’s businesses operated without much government regulation. This is known as laissez-faire economics. Laissez-faire means ‘allow to be’ in French. Although people accepted laissez-faire economics in theory, they supported government involvement when it benefited them. For example, American businesses accepted land grants and subsidies. A subsidy is a payment made by the government to encourage the development of certain key industries, such as railroads.
The Spoils System During Gilded Age, Republicans and Democrats had roughly same numbers To keep party members loyal, candidates rewarded supporters and tried to avoid controversial issues. Under the Spoils System, candidates for political office would offer potential jobs in exchange for votes. The spoils system also gave supporters access to money and political favors. Credit Mobilier Scandal Credit Mobilier overcharges to government to build a railroad for Union Pacific They give CM stock to Congressmen to look the other way
2 Political Parties Republicans appealed to the industrialists, bankers, and eastern farmers. 1800s Republicans favored the gold standard, high tariffs, and enforcement of blue laws, regulations that prohibited certain activities people considered immoral. The Democratic party attracted the less privileged groups such as northern urban immigrants, laborers, southern planters, and western farmers.
Reforming the Spoils System President James A. Garfield Before the 1880 presidential election the Republican party was split into factions. The Stalwarts defended the spoils system. The Half-Breeds hoped to reform the system. The Independents opposed the spoils system. On July 2, 1881 President Garfield was assassinated by a Stalwart Garfield wanted to reform the system. His running-mate was Chester Arthur, a Stalwart. Charles Guiteau wanted Arthur as president.
Civil Service Reforms After the assassination, President Arthur was able to get congressional support for the civil service act Pendleton Civil Service Act. Created a commission which declared employees must be fit for govt. work
Chapter 15 SECTION 2 People on the Move WHAT WERE THE EXPERIENCES OF IMMIGRANTS IN THE LATE 1800S AND EARLY 1900S?
Reasons for Immigration Reasons for Immigrations Immigrants came to the United States fleeing crop failures, shortages of land and jobs, rising taxes, famine, and religious and political persecution. In the 1880s in Russia many Jewish people fled a wave of pogroms, or violent massacres of Jews. Steam-powered ships could cross the Atlantic Ocean in two or three weeks. Most immigrants traveled in steerage, a large open area beneath the ship’s deck. Between 1865 and 1890 about 10 million immigrants arrived. Most came from northwestern and central Europe. (Germany, Great Britain, & Ireland). 1890s immigrants came from other Southern/Eastern Europe: Italy, Greece, Russia More than 70 percent of all immigrants came through New York City which was called the “Golden Door.”
The Immigrant Experience In 1892, the federal government required all new immigrants to undergo a physical exam. Immigrants with contagious diseases, such as tuberculosis, faced quarantine, a time of isolation to prevent the spread of disease. Urban neighborhoods dominated by one ethnic or racial group of immigrants were called ghettos. Some ghettos formed because immigrants felt more comfortable living near people with the same language and traditions. Other ghettos formed from restrictive covenants, when homeowners agreed not to sell real estate to certain groups. Still other ghettos formed when ethnic groups isolated themselves because of threats of violence, mostly from whites.
Hester Street – Jewish Section
Immigrants from Asia Most Asian immigrants entered through the West Coast, usually to work on railroads Congress passed the Chinese Exclusion Act in 1882, which prohibited Chinese laborers entering country. This was passed due to pressure from unions and not repealed until In 1906, the San Francisco school board ruled that all Chinese, Japanese, and Korean students should attend separate schools. The Japanese government condemned the policy so Theodore Roosevelt made a compromise It was called the Gentlemen’s Agreement (Roosevelt) because it was not official. Called for San Francisco to end it’s segregation education policy and for Japan to limit immigrant passports