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UNIT 1 NOTES Chapter 13 – Expansion of American Industry Chapter 15 –Politics, Immigration, & Urban Life.

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Presentation on theme: "UNIT 1 NOTES Chapter 13 – Expansion of American Industry Chapter 15 –Politics, Immigration, & Urban Life."— Presentation transcript:

1 UNIT 1 NOTES Chapter 13 – Expansion of American Industry Chapter 15 –Politics, Immigration, & Urban Life

2 America: Pathways to the Present Chapter 15 Politics, Immigration, and Urban Life (1870–1915)

3 America: Pathways to the Present Section 1: Politics in the Gilded Age Section 2: People on the Move Section 3: The Challenge of the Cities Section 4: Ideas for Reform Chapter 15: Politics, Immigration, and Urban Life (1870–1915)

4 Presidents of the United States  George Washington; Federalist (1788)  John Adams; Federalist (1796)  Thomas Jefferson (1800)  James Madison (1808)  James Monroe (1816)  John Quincy Adams (1824)  Andrew Jackson; Democrat (1828)  Martin Van Buren; Democrat (1836)  William Henry Harrison; Whig (1840)  John Tyler; Whig (1841) #21 - …  Chester A. Arthur; Republican (1881)  Grover Cleveland; Democrat (1884)  Benjamin Harrison; Republican (1888)  Grover Cleveland; Democrat (1892)  William McKinley; Republican (1896)  Theodore Roosevelt; Republican (1901) #  James K. Polk; Democrat (1844)  Zachary Taylor; Whig (1848)  Millard Fillmore; Whig (1850)  Franklin Pierce; Democrat (1852)  James Buchanan; Democrat (1856)  Abraham Lincoln; Republican (1860)  Andrew Johnson; Democrat (1865)  Ulysses S. Grant; Republican (1868)  Rutherford B. Hayes; Republican (1876)  James Garfield; Republican (1880)

5 OBJECTIVES  CORE OBJECTIVE: Explain the changes in late 1800’s urban life relating to Immigration, Industrialization, and Politics in the Gilded Age.  Objective 1.1: How did advances in electric power and communication affect people and business in this era?  Objective 1.2: Why were industrialists of the era called both “Captains of Industry” and “Robber Barons”?  Objective 1.3: How did industrialization impact the growing work force between 1880 and 1900?  Objective 1.4: In what ways did government reform the spoils system and regulate railroads?  Objective: 1.5 : Analyze the challenges immigrants faced in starting a new life in America.  Objective 1.6: How did urban living conditions change as cities rapidly expanded in the late 1800s?  THEME: American Industry will grow with positive and negative consequences

6 Chapter 15 SECTION 1 Politics in the Gilded Age HOW WAS POLITICS AFFECTED BY BUSINESS IN THE LATE 1800S?

7 The Business of Politics  The Gilded Age suggests that there was a glittering layer of prosperity that covered the poverty and corruption in late 1800s society.  This term was coined by Mark Twain.  In the late 1800’s businesses operated without much government regulation. This is known as laissez-faire economics.  Laissez-faire means ‘allow to be’ in French.  Although people accepted laissez-faire economics in theory, they supported government involvement when it benefited them.  For example, American businesses accepted land grants and subsidies.  A subsidy is a payment made by the government to encourage the development of certain key industries, such as railroads.

8 The Spoils System  During Gilded Age, Republicans and Democrats had roughly same numbers  To keep party members loyal, candidates rewarded supporters and tried to avoid controversial issues.  Under the Spoils System, candidates for political office would offer potential jobs in exchange for votes.  The spoils system also gave supporters access to money and political favors.  Credit Mobilier Scandal  Credit Mobilier overcharges to government to build a railroad for Union Pacific  They give CM stock to Congressmen to look the other way

9 2 Political Parties  Republicans appealed to the industrialists, bankers, and eastern farmers.  1800s Republicans favored the gold standard, high tariffs, and enforcement of blue laws, regulations that prohibited certain activities people considered immoral.  The Democratic party attracted the less privileged groups such as northern urban immigrants, laborers, southern planters, and western farmers.

10 Reforming the Spoils System President James A. Garfield  Before the 1880 presidential election the Republican party was split into factions.  The Stalwarts defended the spoils system.  The Half-Breeds hoped to reform the system.  The Independents opposed the spoils system.  On July 2, 1881 President Garfield was assassinated by a Stalwart  Garfield wanted to reform the system. His running-mate was Chester Arthur, a Stalwart.  Charles Guiteau wanted Arthur as president.

11 Civil Service Reforms  After the assassination, President Arthur was able to get congressional support for the civil service act  Pendleton Civil Service Act.  Created a commission which declared employees must be fit for govt. work



14 Reasons for Immigration  Reasons for Immigrations  Immigrants came to the United States fleeing crop failures, shortages of land and jobs, rising taxes, famine, and religious and political persecution.  In the 1880s in Russia many Jewish people fled a wave of pogroms, or violent massacres of Jews.  Steam-powered ships could cross the Atlantic Ocean in two or three weeks.  Most immigrants traveled in steerage, a large open area beneath the ship’s deck.  Between 1865 and 1890 about 10 million immigrants arrived. Most came from northwestern and central Europe. (Germany, Great Britain, & Ireland).  1890s immigrants came from other Southern/Eastern Europe: Italy, Greece, Russia  More than 70 percent of all immigrants came through New York City which was called the “Golden Door.”


16 The Immigrant Experience  In 1892, the federal government required all new immigrants to undergo a physical exam.  Immigrants with contagious diseases, such as tuberculosis, faced quarantine, a time of isolation to prevent the spread of disease.  Urban neighborhoods dominated by one ethnic or racial group of immigrants were called ghettos.  Some ghettos formed because immigrants felt more comfortable living near people with the same language and traditions.  Other ghettos formed from restrictive covenants, when homeowners agreed not to sell real estate to certain groups.  Still other ghettos formed when ethnic groups isolated themselves because of threats of violence, mostly from whites.

17 Hester Street – Jewish Section

18 Immigrants from Asia  Most Asian immigrants entered through the West Coast, usually to work on railroads  Congress passed the Chinese Exclusion Act in 1882, which prohibited Chinese laborers entering country.  This was passed due to pressure from unions and not repealed until  In 1906, the San Francisco school board ruled that all Chinese, Japanese, and Korean students should attend separate schools.  The Japanese government condemned the policy so Theodore Roosevelt made a compromise  It was called the Gentlemen’s Agreement (Roosevelt) because it was not official.  Called for San Francisco to end it’s segregation education policy and for Japan to limit immigrant passports

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