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Early Renaissance Art Four Italian city states that were very successful commercially during the late Gothic period: Venice Florence Lucca Siena.

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Presentation on theme: "Early Renaissance Art Four Italian city states that were very successful commercially during the late Gothic period: Venice Florence Lucca Siena."— Presentation transcript:

1 Early Renaissance Art Four Italian city states that were very successful commercially during the late Gothic period: Venice Florence Lucca Siena

2 Bubonic plague, which killed between 25 and 50 percent of Europes population in about five years. It stimulated religious bequests and encouraged the commissioning of devotional images. The focus on sickness and death also led to a burgeoning in hospital construction.

3 Humanism A mode of civil conduct, a theory of education and a scholarly discipline, mainly concerned with human values and interests as distinct from (but not opposed to) religions otherworldly values. Humanists were particularly interested in classical cultures, the artifacts of which abounded in Italy, and thus helped lead to the rise of the renewal of interest in classical art in the Renaissance.

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5 Bonaventura Berlinghieri Panel from the Saint Francis Altarpiece San Francesco, Pescia, Italy 1235 tempera on wood approximately 5 ft. x 3 ft. 6 in. Byzantine was the style that dominated Medieval Italian painting Stylistic characteristics. Frontal poses. Lack of modeling. Spatial and linear flatness.

6 Bonaventura Berlinghieri Panel from the Saint Francis Altarpiece San Francesco, Pescia, Italy 1235 tempera on wood approximately 5 ft. x 3 ft. 6 in. Francis of Assisi, founder of the Franciscan order of monks. He believed he could get closer to God by rejecting worldly goods and he committed himself to a strict life of fasting, prayer, and meditation. The Franciscan worked to demonstrate the example of St. Francis and the orders commitment to teaching and alleviating suffering. Three episodes of his life that are illustrated in Berlingieris altarpiece: St. Francis preaching to the birds. St. Francis performing miracles. St. Francis receiving the stigmata from a seraph.

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8 Nicola Pisano Pulpit of Pisa Cathedral Baptistery marble approximately 15 ft. high Two trends shown in the works of Nicola and Giovanni Pisano that become significant in the development of Renaissance art. A new interest in classical antiquity. The densely packed large-scale figures of the relief panels of Nicolas Pisa Cathedral pulpit are probably inspired by Roman sarcophagi in pose, bulk, and facial type. Giovannis figures in the SantAndrea pulpit are loosely and dynamically arranged with animation, swiftly turning and rife with emotionalism and naturalism.

9 Nicola Pisano Pulpit of Pisa Cathedral Baptistery marble approximately 15 ft. high Crucifixion Annunciation and Nativity

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11 Pietro Cavallini Seated Apostles from the Last Judgment Santa Cecelia in Trastevere, Rome Italy ca. 1291

12 Cimabue Madonna Enthroned with Angels and Prophets ca tempera on wood 12 ft. 7 in. x 7 ft. 4 in. Cimabue was deeply influenced by the Italo-Byzantine style, he moved beyond it in the following ways: The deeper space the Madonna and other figures reside in. The gold embellishments taken from Byzantine art are used to add three- dimensionality to the drapery.

13 ca tempera on wood 10 ft. 8 in. x 6 ft. 8 in. Artistic traditions that influenced Giotto: The Roman school of painting as represented by Cavallini, the work of Cimabue (presumed to be his teacher), French Gothic sculpture, and developments in contemporary Byzantine art.

14 Giotto di Bondone Madonna Enthroned Cimabue Madonna Enthroned with Angels and Prophets Two characteristics of Giotto's style as seen by comparing his Madonna Enthroned with Cimabue's version of the same subject Sculptural solidity and weight. Figures that project into the light and give the illusion that they could throw shadows.

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16 Giotto di Bondone Interior of the Arena Chapel Padua, Italy fresco

17 Giotto di Bondone Interior of the Arena Chapel Padua, Italy fresco

18 Giotto di Bondone Interior of the Arena Chapel Padua, Italy fresco The subjects of the framed scenes deal with: The most poignant incidents from the lives of Mary and her parents (top level), the life and mission of Christ (middle level), and his Passion, Crucifixion, and Resurrection (bottom level).

19 Giotto di Bondone Lamentation from the Interior of the Arena Chapel Padua, Italy, fresco Four characteristics of Giottos style as seen in the Lamentation scene The framed scenes are connected with formal elements such as the rocky ledge. The figures are sculpturesque (aided by the use of light and shade), simple, and weighty, but without precluding motion and emotion. Figures are in defined groups each of which contribute to the rhythmic order of the composition that concentrates the viewers attention on the most important part of the picture. Figures are seen from the back, emphasizing the foreground.

20 Giotto di Bondone The Meeting of Joachim and Anna from the Interior of the Arena Chapel Padua, Italy fresco In true fresco (buon fresco), the paint in the form of permanent limeproof pigments is diluted in water and applied to freshly laid lime plaster. In fresco secco, the paint is applied to an already dry lime plaster wall.

21 Giotto di Bondone The Meeting of Joachim and Anna from the Interior of the Arena Chapel Padua, Italy fresco

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23 Cambio et al. Florence Cathedral Florence, Italy begun 1296

24 Cambio et al. Florence Cathedral Florence, Italy begun 1296

25 Andrea Orcagna Tabernacle Or San Michele, Florence, Italy ca mosaic, gold, marble, lapis lazuli Bernardo Daddi Madonna and Child with Saints

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27 Duccio di Buoninsegna Virgin and Child Enthroned with Saints from the Maestà altarpiece from Siena Cathedral, Siena, Italy tempera on wood 7 ft. x 13 ft. The subject of Duccios Maesta Altarpiece was The Virgin, as Queen of Heaven, and Child.

28 Three stylistic elements Duccio derived from the Byzantine tradition: The compositions formality and symmetry. The figures and facial types of the principal angels and saints. The scene does not represent a narrative or present illusionistic space by the use of modeled forms. Three ways in which Duccio modified it: He relaxed the strict formality of the figures by turning them to each other. He individualized the faces of the four saints kneeling in the foreground. He softened the drapery patterning of Byzantine art, depicting them as shimmering and glistening textiles.

29 Duccio di Buoninsegna Betrayal of Jesus from the back of the Maestà altarpiece from Siena Cathedral, Siena, Italy tempera on wood 1 ft.10 1/2 in. x 3 ft. 4 in.

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31 Duccio di Buoninsegna Madonna and Child ca tempera and gold on wood 11 x 8 1/8 in.

32 International Style (painting) a style in art during the late 14th and early 15th centuries characterized by elegant stylization of illuminated manuscripts, mosaics, stained glass, etc., and by increased interest in secular themes. Major contributors were Simone Martini, Giotto, and Pisanello

33 Simone Martini and Lippo Memmi Annunciation 1333 tempera and gold leaf on wood 10 ft.1 in. x 8 ft. 8 3/4 in. Simone Martini and the International style: Martini adapted the insubstantial but luxuriant patterns of the French Gothic manner to Sienese art, and in turn acquainted northern painters with the Sienese style. List four characteristics of the International Style. Brilliant colors. Lavish costumes. Intricate ornamentation. Themes involving splendid processions.

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35 Pietro Lorenzetti The Birth of the Virgin from Siena Cathedral 1342 tempera on wood 6 ft.1 in. x 5 ft. 11 in.

36 Palazzo Pubblico Sienna, Italy

37 Ambrogio Lorenzetti Peaceful City Detail from the fresco Effects of Good Government in the City and in the Country fresco Peaceful City shows the growing knowledge of perspective in the architectural forms. Peaceful Country is a specific place and environment, rather than the generic earlier ancient depictions of landscape

38 Ambrogio Lorenzetti Peaceful Country Detail from the fresco Effects of Good Government in the City and in the Country fresco

39 Ambrogio Lorenzetti Allegory of Bad Government Detail from the fresco Effects of Bad Government in the City and in the Country fresco

40 Ambrogio LorenzettiEffects of Bad Government in the Country Detail from the fresco, Effects of Bad Government in the City and in the Country fresco

41 Artists were trained as in any other profession, in the apprentice system. They started from age 7 to 15, living with a master painter. Guilds supervised training, wanting to ensure professional reputations as well as to control the number of artists to limit competition. After leaving their apprenticeships, artists entered related guilds and affiliated themselves with workshops as assistants to master artists. Figure painting was reserved for the master artists.


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