2Questions. What is the goal of the Renaissance? How did Medieval, Romanesque, and Gothic art differ from that of classical art?Questions.
3The Renaissance NOTE: Timeline and Movements of the Renaissance Proto and Early Renaissance (ca to 1400 mostly Northern Italy)The High Renaissance (1495 to 1527)The Venetian Renaissance (1450 to 1600)The Late Renaissance and Mannerism (1527 to 1600)The Northern Renaissance (1325 to 1600)Three factors to be considered?1. Where did this take place?2. Why were people thinking differently?3. How did the art change?What does “renaissance” mean and why did it get this name?NOTE:NOTHING IN THIS PRESENTATION IS ACTUALY RENAISSANCE ART.
4Major Cities of the Renaissance RomeNaplesVeniceSicilySienaFlorencePisa is where we begin…
8Proto Renaissance Italy - Florence Ciambue (1240 to 1302)“The Italo-Byzantine style, or maniera greca (Greek Style or Greek Manner), still characterizes the art of Cenni di Pepo, better known by his nickname, Ciambue.”Giorgio Vasari would write: “Cimabue… was to shed the first light on the art of painting.”Precursor to the precursor
9Proto Renaissance Italy - Florence Ciambue – Madonna Enthroned w. Angels & Prophets (1280 to 1290)Byzantine heritage is apparent (FFFG) Depth is created, but multiple viewpoints Elongated figures still presentFour Old Testament Prophets:Isaiah, Jeremiah, Ezekiel, Daniel
10Proto Renaissance Italy - Florence Giotto di Bondone (1266 to 1337)“Renowned in his own day, his reputation has never faltered. Regardless of the other influences on his artistic style, his true teacher was nature – the world of visible things… [he] recognized that the visual world must be observed before it can be analyzed and understood.”#1 precursor to the RenaissanceNEW TERM!Chiaroscuro – how artists create 3D figures
11Proto Renaissance Italy - Florence Giotto – Madonna Enthroned (1310)“Sculptural” solidity and substanceAnatomical detailFigures are in their own worldCompositionNo linear perspective (yet), but the vieweris not looking at this image straight on.Where are the Old Testament Prophets?
12Proto Renaissance Italy - Florence Giotto – The Arena Chapel (1305 to 1306)
13Proto Renaissance Italy - Florence Giotto – The Arena Chapel (1305 to 1306)Challenge?Projecting on a flat surface the illusion of solid bodies moving through space.Why?To construct the illusion of a body, one must create the illusion of space well enough to contain that body.Inside the Chapel?The cycle of Christian Redemption in 38 framed scenes depicted on three levels:Top Level: Scenes from the lives of the Virgin and her parents (Joachim and Anna)Middle Level: The life and mission of ChristBottom Level: Passion, Crucifixion, and Resurrection of ChristWhat scene would you see as you left the chapel?The Last Judgment
14Proto Renaissance Italy - Florence Giotto – The Arena Chapel (1305 to 1306)Enrico ScrovegniWhat are the two types of fresco we have discussed?Why was the Chapel built?
15What do you notice in this building that looks back to the classical age? How is the story told in the Arena Chapel?
16Tree of Knowledge of Good and Evil John the EvangelistVirgin MaryMary MagdaleneLamentation scene from the Arena Chapel by Giotto (1305)
17Proto Renaissance Italy - Siena Duccio – Maestá or the Virgin Enthroned in Majesty (1308 to 1311)Background the Maestá:The republics of Siena and Florence were two of the leading city states of the 14th century Italy. The Sienese were particularly proud of their victory over the Florentines at the battle of Monteperti in 1260, and believed the Virgin Mary had sponsored their triumph.This belief reinforced Sienese devotion to the Virgin, which was paramount in the religious life of the city. Sienese citizens could boast of Siena’s dedication to the Queen of Heaved… and to honor the Virgin, the Sienese commissioned Duccio to paint an immense altarpiece for the Cathedral of Siena.
18Proto Renaissance Italy - Siena Duccio – Maestá or the Virgin Enthroned in Majesty (1308 to 1311)Front - MaryBack - ChristPolyptych?
19Proto Renaissance Italy - Siena Duccio – Maestá or the Virgin Enthroned in Majesty (1308 to 1311)Death and ascent of MaryFrontBackEarly life of Mary“Holy Mother of God, be the cause of peace to Siena and to the life of Duccio, because he painted thee, thus.”
20Proto Renaissance Italy - Siena Duccio – Maestá or the Virgin Enthroned in Majesty (1308 to 1311)Follows Byzantine tradition, but lacks frontalityFour local saints have individualized facesAltarpiece for the Siena Cathedral prevents experimentation
21Proto Renaissance Italy - Siena Ambrogio Lorenzetti – Frescoes in Siena’s Palazzo PubblicoHow does the location change what it will depict?Parts:1. Bad Government and the Effects of Bad Government in the City and the Country2. Good Government and the Effects of Good Government in the City and the CountryPalazzo Pubblico - Siena
22Proto Renaissance Italy - Siena Ambrogio Lorenzetti – Frescoes in Siena’s Palazzo PubblicoGood Government in the City
23Proto Renaissance Italy - Siena Ambrogio Lorenzetti – Frescoes in Siena’s Palazzo PubblicoGood Government in the Countryside
24Proto Renaissance Italy - Siena Ambrogio Lorenzetti – Frescoes in Siena’s Palazzo PubblicoBad Government in the City
25Proto Renaissance Italy - Siena Ambrogio Lorenzetti – Frescoes in Siena’s Palazzo PubblicoBad Government in the City
26Proto Renaissance Italy - Siena Simone MartiniWhat did Martini do?He would be instrumental in the formation of the International Style.- Brilliant Colors- Ornamentation, decoration- Themes involving processions
27Proto Renaissance Italy - Siena Simone Martini – Annunciation Altarpiece (1333)Movement shown in Gabriel’s cloth and wings Transalpine influence (Gothic frame) Lippo Memmi?