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Proto Renaissance. QUESTIONS. What is the goal of the Renaissance? How did Medieval, Romanesque, and Gothic art differ from that of classical art?

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Presentation on theme: "Proto Renaissance. QUESTIONS. What is the goal of the Renaissance? How did Medieval, Romanesque, and Gothic art differ from that of classical art?"— Presentation transcript:

1 Proto Renaissance

2 QUESTIONS. What is the goal of the Renaissance? How did Medieval, Romanesque, and Gothic art differ from that of classical art?

3 The Renaissance Timeline and Movements of the Renaissance Proto and Early Renaissance (ca to 1400 mostly Northern Italy) The High Renaissance (1495 to 1527) The Venetian Renaissance (1450 to 1600) The Late Renaissance and Mannerism (1527 to 1600) The Northern Renaissance (1325 to 1600) Three factors to be considered? 1. Where did this take place? 2. Why were people thinking differently? 3. How did the art change? What does “renaissance” mean and why did it get this name? NOTE: NOTHING IN THIS PRESENTATION IS ACTUALY RENAISSANCE ART.

4 Major Cities of the Renaissance Rome Naples Venice Sicily Siena Florence Pisa is where we begin…

5 Proto Renaissance Italy - Pisa Nicola Pisano (active 1258 to 1278)

6 Proto Renaissance Italy - Pisa Nicola Pisano Pulpit of the Pisa Cathedral Baptistery (1259 to 1260)

7 Madonna Enthroned

8 Proto Renaissance Italy - Florence Ciambue (1240 to 1302) “The Italo-Byzantine style, or maniera greca (Greek Style or Greek Manner), still characterizes the art of Cenni di Pepo, better known by his nickname, Ciambue.” Giorgio Vasari would write: “Cimabue… was to shed the first light on the art of painting.” Precursor to the precursor

9 Proto Renaissance Italy - Florence Byzantine heritage is apparent (FFFG) Depth is created, but multiple viewpoints Elongated figures still present Ciambue – Madonna Enthroned w. Angels & Prophets (1280 to 1290) Four Old Testament Prophets: Isaiah, Jeremiah, Ezekiel, Daniel

10 Proto Renaissance Italy - Florence Giotto di Bondone (1266 to 1337) “Renowned in his own day, his reputation has never faltered. Regardless of the other influences on his artistic style, his true teacher was nature – the world of visible things… [he] recognized that the visual world must be observed before it can be analyzed and understood.” #1 precursor to the Renaissance NEW TERM! Chiaroscuro – how artists create 3D figures

11 Proto Renaissance Italy - Florence “Sculptural” solidity and substance Anatomical detail Figures are in their own world Composition No linear perspective (yet), but the viewer is not looking at this image straight on. Where are the Old Testament Prophets? Giotto – Madonna Enthroned (1310)

12 Proto Renaissance Italy - Florence Giotto – The Arena Chapel (1305 to 1306)

13 Proto Renaissance Italy - Florence Challenge? Projecting on a flat surface the illusion of solid bodies moving through space. Why? To construct the illusion of a body, one must create the illusion of space well enough to contain that body. Inside the Chapel? The cycle of Christian Redemption in 38 framed scenes depicted on three levels: Top Level: Scenes from the lives of the Virgin and her parents (Joachim and Anna) Middle Level: The life and mission of Christ Bottom Level: Passion, Crucifixion, and Resurrection of Christ What scene would you see as you left the chapel? The Last Judgment Giotto – The Arena Chapel (1305 to 1306)

14 Proto Renaissance Italy - Florence Giotto – The Arena Chapel (1305 to 1306) What are the two types of fresco we have discussed? Why was the Chapel built? Enrico Scrovegni

15 What do you notice in this building that looks back to the classical age? How is the story told in the Arena Chapel?

16 Lamentation scene from the Arena Chapel by Giotto (1305) Tree of Knowledge of Good and Evil Virgin Mary John the Evangelist Mary Magdalene

17 Proto Renaissance Italy - Siena Background the Maestá: The republics of Siena and Florence were two of the leading city states of the 14th century Italy. The Sienese were particularly proud of their victory over the Florentines at the battle of Monteperti in 1260, and believed the Virgin Mary had sponsored their triumph. This belief reinforced Sienese devotion to the Virgin, which was paramount in the religious life of the city. Sienese citizens could boast of Siena’s dedication to the Queen of Heaved… and to honor the Virgin, the Sienese commissioned Duccio to paint an immense altarpiece for the Cathedral of Siena. Duccio – Maestá or the Virgin Enthroned in Majesty (1308 to 1311)

18 Proto Renaissance Italy - Siena Duccio – Maestá or the Virgin Enthroned in Majesty (1308 to 1311) Polyptych? Front - MaryBack - Christ

19 Proto Renaissance Italy - Siena Duccio – Maestá or the Virgin Enthroned in Majesty (1308 to 1311) FrontBack Early life of Mary Death and ascent of Mary “Holy Mother of God, be the cause of peace to Siena and to the life of Duccio, because he painted thee, thus.”

20 Proto Renaissance Italy - Siena Duccio – Maestá or the Virgin Enthroned in Majesty (1308 to 1311) Follows Byzantine tradition, but lacks frontality Four local saints have individualized faces Altarpiece for the Siena Cathedral prevents experimentation

21 Proto Renaissance Italy - Siena How does the location change what it will depict? Parts: 1. Bad Government and the Effects of Bad Government in the City and the Country 2. Good Government and the Effects of Good Government in the City and the Country Ambrogio Lorenzetti – Frescoes in Siena’s Palazzo Pubblico Palazzo Pubblico - Siena

22 Proto Renaissance Italy - Siena Ambrogio Lorenzetti – Frescoes in Siena’s Palazzo Pubblico Good Government in the City

23 Proto Renaissance Italy - Siena Ambrogio Lorenzetti – Frescoes in Siena’s Palazzo Pubblico Good Government in the Countryside

24 Proto Renaissance Italy - Siena Ambrogio Lorenzetti – Frescoes in Siena’s Palazzo Pubblico Bad Government in the City

25 Proto Renaissance Italy - Siena Ambrogio Lorenzetti – Frescoes in Siena’s Palazzo Pubblico Bad Government in the City

26 Proto Renaissance Italy - Siena What did Martini do? He would be instrumental in the formation of the International Style. - Brilliant Colors - Ornamentation, decoration - Themes involving processions Simone Martini

27 Proto Renaissance Italy - Siena Movement shown in Gabriel’s cloth and wings Transalpine influence (Gothic frame) Lippo Memmi? Simone Martini – Annunciation Altarpiece (1333)


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