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Fourteenth Century Italy Pietro Cavallini, Seated Apostles, ca. 1291 detail of the Last Judgment, Santa Cecilia in Trastevere, Rome, Italy, Fresco -The.

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Presentation on theme: "Fourteenth Century Italy Pietro Cavallini, Seated Apostles, ca. 1291 detail of the Last Judgment, Santa Cecilia in Trastevere, Rome, Italy, Fresco -The."— Presentation transcript:

1 Fourteenth Century Italy Pietro Cavallini, Seated Apostles, ca detail of the Last Judgment, Santa Cecilia in Trastevere, Rome, Italy, Fresco -The art of Pietro Cavallini (ca ) represented one style of the Roman school of painting. - An interest in the sculptural rendering of form is characterized in this painting. - This was not in the Roman style as much as in the Byzantine style - They are represented with a style of solidity and strength Figure 19-5 From Gothic to Renaissance: The 14th Century in Italy

2 Fourteenth Century Italy Giotto Di Bondone, Madonna Enthroned, ca. 1310, Tempera on Wood, Galleria degli Uffizzi, Florence Giotto -his new form of painting displaced the Byzantine style and established painting as a major form of art form for the next six centuries - he restored the naturalistic approach invented by the ancients and abandoned in the middle ages - also had a method or pictorial expression based on observation -Madonna is depicted in representational art with sculptural solidity and weight - The Madonna, enthroned with angles, rests within her Gothic throne with the unshakable stability of an ancient marble goddess - Her body is sturdy, queenly mother, bodily of this world, even to the swelling of her bosom - This art was aimed to construct a figure that has substance, dimensionality and bulk - Works painted in this new style portray figures, like those in sculpture, that project into the light and give the illusion that they could throw shadows - In this painting the throne is deep enough to contain the monumental figure and breaks away from the flat ground to project and enclose her Figure 19-7 From Gothic to Renaissance: The 14th Century in Italy

3 Fourteenth Century Italy Giotto Di Bondone, Interior of the Arena Chapel, (Cappella Scovegni), Padua, Italy, - projecting an illusion of solid bodies moving through space on a flat surface presents a double challenge, to do this an illusion of a space large enough to contain the body must also be created - the design of the building so perfectly fits the illusion that its is suggested that Giotto is the architect too - complete pictorial cycle of Christian Redemption, created in 38 framed pictures on 3 levels - the pictorial levels are on a neutral base with imitation marble veneer alternates with the virtues and vices painted in grisaill (monochrome grays, often used for modeling in painting) to resemble sculpture - the ceiling is blue, an azure sky symbolic of heaven, the same blue is found in the backgrounds of the panels and acts as a unifying effect - The borders are complex and contrast the simple images they surround - the figures are sculpturesque, simple, and weighty, but this mass does not preclude motion and emotion - postures and gestures express a broad spectrum of grief Figure 19-8 From Gothic to Renaissance: The 14th Century in Italy

4 Fourteenth Century Italy Giotto Di Bondone, Lamentation, ca Arena Chapel, Padua, Italy,, Fresco - a single image from the Chapel - this integration of formality with emotional composition was never achieved till Giotto - the figures are grouped within a constructed space and each group has its own definition and each contributes to the rhythmic order of the composition - the new spatial depth and bodily mass could not have been achieved without the management of shade and light - the figures are shaded to indicate both the direction of the light that illuminates them and the shadows -The stage like setting was made possible by Giottos innovations in perspective and lighting - Chiaroscuro- the use of dramatic contrasts of dark and light to produce modeling - perspective- the depiction of three- dimensional objects in space on a two dimensional surface Figure 19-9 From Gothic to Renaissance

5 Moving away from Medievalism Arnolfo Di Cambio and others, Florence Cathedral begun 1296 (view from the South) Florence, Italy. From Gothic to Renaissance: The 14th Century in Italy Figure The Florence Cathedral was recognized as the center of the most important religious observances in Florence. It was begun in 1296 by Arnolfo di Cambio and was intended to be the “most beautiful and honorable church in Tuscany.” The building’s surfaces were ornamented in the old Tuscan fashion, with marble-encrusted geometric designs matching it to the eleventh-century Romanesque Baptistery of San Giovanni. The Cathedral focuses on horizontal aspects, rather than lifting itself off the ground much like the Cologne Cathedral. The top dome has a crisp, closed silhouette that sets it off emphatically against the sky behind it.

6 Moving away from Medievalism Arnolfo Di Cambio and others, Florence Cathedral (view from the South) Florence, Italy. begun 1296 From Gothic to Renaissance: The 14th Century in Italy Figure The Florence Cathedral was recognized as the center of the most important religious observances in Florence. It was begun in 1296 by Arnolfo di Cambio and was intended to be the “most beautiful and honorable church in Tuscany.” The building’s surfaces were ornamented in the old Tuscan fashion, with marble-encrusted geometric designs matching it to the eleventh-century Romanesque Baptistery of San Giovanni. The Cathedral focuses on horizontal aspects, rather than lifting itself off the ground much like the Cologne Cathedral. The top dome has a crisp, closed silhouette that sets it off emphatically against the sky behind it.

7 Moving away from Medievalism Nave of Florence Cathedral (view facing east) Florence, Italy. begun 1296 From Gothic to Renaissance: The 14th Century in Italy The nave of the Florence Cathedral appears to have been added to the crossing complex as an afterthought; however, the nave was built first. The nave is the area that leads to the area beneath the dome, which is the design’s focal point. The Florence nave bays (shown in this photo) are twice as deep as those of Amiens, and the wide arcades permit the shallow aisles to become part of the central nave, thus resulting in an interior of unmatched spaciousness. As on the outside of the Cathedral, the accents are on the horizontal aspects. The substantial capitals of the piers prevent them from soaring into the vaults and emphasize their function as supporters. Figure 19-13

8 Moving away from Medievalism Nave of Florence Cathedral (view facing east) Florence, Italy. begun 1296 From Gothic to Renaissance: The 14th Century in Italy The nave of the Florence Cathedral appears to have been added to the crossing complex as an afterthought; however, the nave was built first. The nave is the area that leads to the area beneath the dome, which is the design’s focal point. The Florence nave bays (shown in this photo) are twice as deep as those of Amiens, and the wide arcades permit the shallow aisles to become part of the central nave, thus resulting in an interior of unmatched spaciousness. As on the outside of the Cathedral, the accents are on the horizontal aspects. The substantial capitals of the piers prevent them from soaring into the vaults and emphasize their function as supporters. Figure 19-13

9 Moving away from Medievalism Nave of Santa Maria Novella, Florence, Italy From Gothic to Renaissance: The 14th Century in Italy The Florentine government and contributions from private citizens subsidized the commissioning of the Dominicians’ Santa Maria Novella around These orders attracted such large amounts of people, forcing for the expansive scale of the Cathedral. Marble striping along the ogival arches and small oculi (round openings) punctuate the nave. In the original plan, a tramezzo (screen) was placed across the nave, separating the friars from the lay audience; the mass was performed on separate altars on each side of the screen. This screen was removed by church officials in the mid- sixteenth century to encourage greater lay participation in the Mass. The Rucellai, a Florentine family, commissioned the facade for Santa Maria Novella from the architect Leon Battista Alberti in the mid-fifteenth century. Figure 19-14

10 The Fourteenth Century In Italy Andrea Orcagna and Bernardo Daddi Madonna and Child with Saints Florence, Italy From Gothic to Renaissance The tabernacle of the Virgin Mary in Florence’s Or San Michele is the work of two “Giotteschi” (followers of Giotto), Andrea Di Cione, known as Orcagna and Bernardo Daddi. Orcagna produced the work’s of architecture and sculpture, and Bernardo Daddi painted the panel of the Madonna, which the tabernacle enshrines. This piece is inside a church named San Michele which was originally a grain market. Figure 19-15

11 Fourteenth Century Italy Duccio Di Buoninsegna, Virgin and Child Enthroned with Saints, Principle panel of the Maesta alterpiece, from the Siena Cathedral, Siena, Italy, , Tempra on wood panel - Part of a large altarpiece called the Maesta, he carved his name into the base of the Virgins throne - Depicts the Virgin enthroned as the Queen of Heaven amid angels and saints - the compositions formality, symmetry, and faces of the figures all come from Byzantine tradition but they are slightly relaxed, the faces on the figures are individualized and there movements are softened - part of a new naturalism, full of color, composition and texture manipulation - the influence of China and the Middle East can be seen in the texture and composition of the fabrics that the figures are wearing Figure From Gothic to Renaissance: The 14th Century in Italy

12 Moving away from Medievalism Duccio Di Buoninsegna, detail from the back of the Maesta altarpiece from the Siena Cathedral. Siena, Italy From Gothic to Renaissance: The 14th Century in Italy Image goes here Delete this text before placing the image here. Notice the different expressions on the faces of those depicted in the piece. Peter’s anger is evident, while Judas shows malice toward Jesus, and the disciples show apprehension and timidity. This piece is representation of several episodes of Jesus’ betrayal, including the Kiss of Judas, the disciples fleeing in terror, and Peter cutting off the ear of the high priest’s servant. The golden sky remains traditional, however, the figures are not depicted as they were in earlier Byzantine art. Duccio gives the figures depth, emotion on their faces, and adorns them with clothing that drapes around them convincingly. The figures display a variety of emotions, reacting to what is happening around them. Figure 19-17

13 Duccio Di Buoninsegna, detail from the back of the Maesta altarpiece from the Siena Cathedral. Siena, Italy From Gothic to Renaissance: The 14th Century in Italy

14 Moving away from Medievalism Duccio Di Buoninsegna, detail from the back of the Maesta altarpiece from the Siena Cathedral. Siena, Italy From Gothic to Renaissance: The 14th Century in Italy Image goes here Delete this text before placing the image here. Notice the different expressions on the faces of those depicted in the piece. Peter’s anger is evident, while Judas shows malice toward Jesus, and the disciples show apprehension and timidity. This piece is representation of several episodes of Jesus’ betrayal, including the Kiss of Judas, the disciples fleeing in terror, and Peter cutting off the ear of the high priest’s servant. The golden sky remains traditional, however, the figures are not depicted as they were in earlier Byzantine art. Duccio gives the figures depth, emotion on their faces, and adorns them with clothing that drapes around them convincingly. The figures display a variety of emotions, reacting to what is happening around them. Figure 19-17

15 The Fourteenth Century In Italy Simone Martini and Lippo Memmi Annunciation, 1333 Galleria degli Uffizi, Florence From Gothic To Renaissance Martini’s own style did not quite reach the full exuberance of the developed International Style. This is piece is a very famous altarpiece. Elegant shapes and radiant color: flowing, fluttering line; and weightless figures in a spaceless setting characterize the Annuciation. The complex etiquette of the European chivalric courts dictated the presentation. The angel Gabriel has just alighted, the breeze of his passage lifting his mantle, his iridescent wings still beating. The gold of his sumptuous gown heraldically represents the celestial realm whence he bears his message. The Virgin, putting down her book of devotions, shrinks demurely from Gabriel’s reverent genuflection, an appropriate gesture in the presence of royalty. Lippo Memmi’s contribution is questioned and a matter of debate. Image goes here Delete this text before placing the image here. Figure 19-18

16 Moving away from Medievalism Pietro Lorenzetti, The Birth of the Virgin, from the Altar of Saint Savinus, Sienna Cathedral, Siena, Italy From Gothic to Renaissance: The 14th Century in Italy Figure Pietro Lorenzetti painted this piece for the Siena Cathedral as part of a program honoring the Virgin Mary. He painted the members of the work in three compartments which seem as though they extended into the wooden panels. Viewers would see the figures through a faux wooden frame. This illusion is strengthened by one of the vertical members cutting across one of the figures, blocking part of it from view.

17 Moving away from Medievalism Pietro Lorenzetti, The Birth of the Virgin, 1342 from the Altar of Saint Savinus, Sienna Cathedral, Siena, Italy. From Gothic to Renaissance: The 14th Century in Italy Figure Pietro Lorenzetti painted this piece for the Siena Cathedral as part of a program honoring the Virgin Mary. He painted the members of the work in three compartments which seem as though they extended into the wooden panels. Viewers would see the figures through a faux wooden frame. This illusion is strengthened by one of the vertical members cutting across one of the figures, blocking part of it from view.

18 The Fourteenth Century In Italy Palazzo Pubblico Siena, Italy From Gothic To Renaissance This building earned the admiration of citizens of the city-state as well as visitors, inspiring in them respect for the city’s power and success. Symmetrical in its design than most buildings of its type and period, it abuts a lofty tower, which is one of the finest in Italy. This tall structure served as lookout over the city and the countryside around it and as a bell tower for ringing signals of all sorts to the populance. The city, a self-contained political unit, had to defend itself against neighboring cities and often against kings and emperors. In addition, it had to be secure against internal upheavals common in the history of the Italian city- republics. Feuds between rich and powerful families, class struggle, even unprisings of the whole populance against the city governors were constant threats. Figure 19-20

19 The Fourteenth Century In Italy Ambrogio Lorenzetti Peaceful City, Siena Italy From Gothic to Renaissance “Peaceful City” is a panoramic view of Siena, with its clustering palaces, markets, towers, chruches, streets, and walls. The city’s traffic moves peacefully, the guilds’ members ply their trades and crafts, and a cluster of radiant maidens, hand in hand, perform a graceful circling dance. The artist fondly observed the life of his city, and its architecture gave him an opportunity to apply Sienese artists’ rapidly growing knowledge of perspective. Image goes here Delete this text before placing the image here. Figure 19-21

20 Ambrogio Lorenzetti Peaceful City, Siena Italy The Fourteenth Century In Italy From Gothic to Renaissance “Peaceful Country” presents a bird’s-eye view of the undulating Tuscan countryside--its villas, castles, plowed farmlands, and peasants going about their seasonal occupations. An allegorical figure of Security hovers above the landscape, unfurling a scroll that promises safety to all who live under the rule of the law. “Peaceful Country” represented one of the first appearance of landscape in Western art since antiquity. Image goes here Delete this text before placing the image here. Figure 19-22


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