Presentation on theme: "From Medieval to Renaissance: Italy, 1200-1400. Compare Byzantine (left) style and content with High Renaissance (right) (left) Bonaventura Berlinghieri,"— Presentation transcript:
From Medieval to Renaissance: Italy,
Compare Byzantine (left) style and content with High Renaissance (right) (left) Bonaventura Berlinghieri, Saint Francis Altarpiece, 1235 and (right) Raphael, Baldassare Castiglione, ca 1514, mastered illusionism
Compare (left) High Italian Renaissance Raphael, Baldassare Castiglione, ca 1514, mastered illusionism with Vincent Van Gogh, Dutch Modernist, Portrait Dedicated to Paul Gauguin, 1888
Compare Van Gogh (1888) Expressionism with Pablo Picasso (Spanish) Portrait of Vollard, 1910, “School of Paris” Cubism
Andy Warhol, (US Pop Art), Gold Marilyn, 1962
Map of the Word in 2009
Italy Around 1400
Roman Forum. Italian Renaissance humanists – artists, writers, architects – were inspired by Greco-Roman literature and art, evident in ruins of classical culture that were part of their landscape.
BONAVENTURA BERLINGHIERI, panel from the Saint Francis Altarpiece, San Francesco, Pescia, Italy, Tempera on wood, approx. 5’ x 3’ x 6”. A leading painter in the Italo- Byzantine style. Frontal pose and use of gold leaf show his Byzantine sources. Byzantine icon, St Nicholas, early 13 th C. Greece
NICOLA PISANO, pulpit of Pisa Cathedral baptistery, Pisa, Italy, 1259– Marble, approx. 15’ high. This is a hybrid medieval (trefoil arches, lion bases), and classical (relief sculptures drawing from Roman and Greek sources).
NICOLA PISANO, The Annunciation and the Nativity, detail of Pisa baptistery pulpit, Pisa, Italy, 1259–1260. Marble relief, approx. 2’ 10” x 3’ 9”.
Compare Nicola Pisano’s Late Gothic/Early Renaissance marble relief (above) with Roman relief sculpture of the myth of Orestes, ca. 140–150 CE. Marble, 2’ 7 1/2” high. Cleveland Museum of Art, Cleveland.
GIOVANNI PISANO, The Annunciation and the Nativity, detail of the pulpit of Sant’Andrea, Pistoia, Italy, 1297–1301. Marble relief, approx. 2’ 10” x 3’ 4”.
CIMABUE (“Bull’s Head”), Madonna Enthroned with Angels and Prophets, ca. 1280–1290. Tempera on wood, 12’ 7” x 7’ 4”. Galleria degli Uffizi, Florence. One of the first artists to break with the Italo-Byzantine style. A summary of Byzantine style, but the throne recedes into space. Spatial illusionism is a hallmark of Renaissance representation.
GIOTTO DI BONDONE, Madonna Enthroned, ca Tempera on wood, 10’ 8” x 6’ 8”. Galleria degli Uffizi, Florence. Called the "Father of Western Painting” why? Empirical art: “[Giotto’s] true teacher was nature.”
Compare Cimabue and Giotto. Is Giotto’s style more empirical?
Roman maternal goddess, panel from the east facade of the Ara Pacis Augustae, Rome, Italy, 13–9 BCE. Marble, approx. 5’ 3” high. Compare Giotto (1310) for solidity of the body, a body that has weight.
Giotto, Interior of the Arena Chapel (Cappella Scrovegni), Padua, Italy, 1305–1306. Fresco panels of the life of the Virgin (top) and the life of Christ (center and lower)
GIOTTO DI BONDONE, Lamentation, Arena Chapel, Padua, Italy, ca Fresco, 6’ 6 3/4” x 6’ 3/4” What is fresco (method and medium)? Illusionism and expression
Anonymous Byzantine artist, Lamentation over the Dead Christ, wall painting, Saint Pantaleimon, Nerezi, Macedonia, Compare Byzantine Lamentation (above) with Giotto’s early Renaissance Lamentation on the right, ca 1305
Sculptor ARNOLFO DI CAMBIO and others, Florence Cathedral (Santa Maria del Fiore, view from the south), Florence, Italy, begun Campanile (free-standing bell tower) by Giotto. Dome by Filippo Brunelleschi was built in the early 15 th century.
Compare Florence Cathedral (above) begun 1296 with the Cologne cathedral (left) begun 1248.
Nave of Amiens Cathedral (view facing east), Amiens, France, begun Nave of Florence Cathedral (view facing east), Florence, Italy, begun 1296.
Palazzo Pubblico, Siena, Italy, 1288–1309
Ambrogio Lorenzetti, Peaceful City, detail from Effects of Good Government in the City and in the Country, Sala della Pace, Palazzo Pubblico, Siena, Italy, 1338– Fresco.
Ambrogio Lorenzetti, Peaceful Country, detail from Effects of Good Government in the City and in the Country, Sala della Pace, Palazzo Pubblico, Siena, Italy, 1338– Fresco. The first “real” (empirical) landscape painting – a portrait of a place. Siena was decimated by the Black Death in Approximately half the population died in the plague. The republic's economy was destroyed and the city-state quickly declined from its position of prominence in Italy.
The Triumph of Death, , Fresco, 18’6”x49’2”, Camposanto, Pisa
The Camposanto (sacred field), cemetery, Pisa, Italy
Francesco Traini (?) or Buonamico Buffalmacco (?), The Three Living, detail from The Triumph of Death, fresco, , 18’6” x 49’2” Camposanto, Pisa
Corpses, detail from The Triumph of Death fresco, Camposanto, Pisa
Detail from The Triumph of Death, c , Camposanto, Pisa
Detail from Triumph of Death, c. 1348, Santa Croce, Florence. The Catholic Church intensified preaching of guilt and penance following the Black Death.