Presentation on theme: "Climate Change: The Implications for Carbon Accounting and Management in the Tourism Sector Paul Hooper & Rachel Dunk Centre for Aviation, Transport and."— Presentation transcript:
Climate Change: The Implications for Carbon Accounting and Management in the Tourism Sector Paul Hooper & Rachel Dunk Centre for Aviation, Transport and the Environment Manchester Metropolitan University 8 th International Conference on Responsible Tourism MMU 4 th April 2014
Outline Mandate of action Guidance and options for footprinting and accounting procedures The tourism system Implications for carbon accounts and emissions mitigation
Tourism Growth UNWTO (2011) Erxleben and Sallwey (2007)
Global Tourism and Climate Change Tourism (including day-trips) is responsible for 4.95% of global CO2 emissions –Up to 14% if measured as radiative forcing (The warming caused by CO2 and other GHGs). If tourism was a country it would be the 5th biggest polluter worldwide (similar to Japan). Global tourism emissions projected to grow by 152% by 2035. Sources: Peeters and Dubois (2010); UNWTO-UNEP-WMO (2008)
Implications for Tourism Growing CC emissions from tourism in the context of policy commitments to radical cuts in GHG emissions Need to take efficient and effective actions Important to demonstrate carbon responsibility Case for growth is getting more difficult – credibility crucial Carbon account……
Activity data to carbon account Determining carbon emissions requires data on: –The activity generating the carbon emissions (quantity, type, organisation) –The carbon output per unit activity. This is usually expressed as an emissions/conversion factor Units of activity x EF = total CO 2 generated
So what should be included in a carbon account?
Scope Options – GHG Protocol Define three scopes (or boundaries) for GHG/carbon emissions accounting 1.Direct GHG emissions from all sources owned by the company (stationary and mobile combustion) 2.Plus indirect GHG emissions from purchase of electricity 3.Optional step – indirect emissions from companys upstream and downstream activities (provides an opportunity to be innovative in GHG management)
How far is far enough? Carbon Reduction Commitment –mandates reporting for larger organisations (>6000MWh) –Focuses on fuels and electricity consumed (i.e. Scope 1 & 2 emissions) However DEFRA Guidance: –Sets no minimum size threshold –Covers wider range of emissions –Does not specify a minimum level of reporting (emphasises completeness)
So what should be done about Scope 3 Emissions Challenging given the variety of organisations in the tourism sector Best to start with an appreciation of the tourism system for completeness ICARB identified a range of system carbon emission sources from: –Inputs –Outputs –Outsourcing
So why take on Level 3? ACI International (2009) have something to offer: Guidance Manual: Airport Greenhouse Gas Emissions Management
References ACI (International) (2009) Guidance Manual: Airport GHG Emissions Management, ACI World Environment Standing Committee DEFRA (2013) Environmental Reporting Guidelines: including mandatory GHG emissions reporting guidance. DEFRA GHG Conversion Factor Repository available at www.ukconversionfactorscarbonsmart.co.uk/ www.ukconversionfactorscarbonsmart.co.uk/ Erxleben, T. and Sallwey, L. (2007) The impact of current developments on the baggage flow at airports and derived trends in airport logistics. Elektroniczne czasopismo naukowe z dziedziny logistyki, 3 (1), No. 5. Peeters, P. And Dubois, G. (2010) Tourism travel under climate change mitigation constraints. Journal of Transport Geography, 18 (3),447-457. UNWTO (2011) Tourism Highlights 2009 Edition. http://unwto.org UNWTO-UNEP-WMO (2008) Climate Change and Tourism: Responding to Global Challenges. UNWTO, Madrid. WBCSD and WRI (2004) The Greenhouse Gas Protocol.