Presentation on theme: "Lecture 9: Hub-and-Spoke Operations"— Presentation transcript:
1Lecture 9: Hub-and-Spoke Operations The Hub-and-spokes system was developed as one of the results from the US airline deregulation. Prior to establishing this system, airlines operated point-to-point routing which was often not cost efficient. The concept of the Hub-and-spokes system was to concentrate traffic to one airport- the major hub from smaller national airports (known as the spokes) or other means of transport, and then the gathered group of passengers would be transported from the major hub to another major hub (Bontekoning, ).Lecture 9: Hub-and-Spoke OperationsBy: Zuliana Ismail
2Question Bank a) Describe about Hub and Spoke operation b) Discuss the advantages of Hub and Spokeoperation.2. a) Explain why do some airports aim to become a Hubb) Describe the strategies to be a Hub airport.
3IntroductionThe hub-and-spokes system works in comparison to the point-to-point systemPoint-to-point system:Point-to-point systemThe following diagram compares how the hub-and-spokes system works in comparison to the point-to-point system.At the era of point-to-point travelling passengers may have to make land transport to smaller towns.whereas the hub-and-spoke systems increases possible city pairs they can enter into.The development of this system had enabled travellers a more integrated travelling system and experience, where passengers originating from smaller regions had the ability to make transits at a major hub where connecting flights to many other destinations are possible.However at the same time the frequency of flights in and out of many smaller airports had decreased as a result of major airlines exiting the market of these smaller airports and concentrate on more profitable connection routes.Hub-and-spoke systems: A system of air transportation in which local airports offer air transportation to a central airport where long-distance flights are availableHub-and-spoke
4DEFINITION OF A HUBA hub for air travel is a major airport which has direct service to many other airports, but not necessarily by the same airline.Also refer to an airport where a specific airline maintains large operations.Airline hubAn airline hub is an airport that an airline uses as a transfer point to get passengers to their intended destination. It is part of a hub and spoke model, where travelers moving between airports not served by direct flights change planes en route to their destinations. Many hubs of the airlines are also situated at airports in the cities of the respective head offices. Some airlines may use only a single hub, while other airlines use multiple hubs. Hubs are used for both passenger flights as well as cargo flights.Many airlines also utilize focus cities, which function much the same as hubs, but with fewer flights. Airlines may also use secondary hubs, a non-technical term for large focus cities. For most non-US airlines, it is more technically correct to use the term home base rather than hub as a majority of their flights are international and the so-called hubs are simply their home countries' largest airports, such as Auckland International Airport for Air New Zealand, Bangkok-Suvarnabhumi Airport for Thai Airways International, Narita International Airport for Japan Airlines, or Singapore Changi Airport for Singapore Airlines. Indeed, the application of the term hub in such contexts is only recently popularized by American airline industry analysts and often contested by local commentators.All 30 of the busiest airports in the world serve as hubs for one or more major airlinesDefinitionIt is very big in size and handles international and domestic flight.Criteria of a Hub (so called local city/traffic)The country’s population and economic statusGeographic position(-capital)Distance between HubWeather conditionHub airport: It is very big in size and handles international and domestic flight.
5SPOKEDefinitionThey are smaller compare to the hubs and handles domestic flights only.Mostly it is located in every state in the country.Spoke - serving the small markets, profit and getting people from this market to big market (hub)
6General Idea of Hub & Spoke system Flights depart from smaller airport (spoke) in the areaConverge on the Hub airport at approximately the same timePassengers disembark from their flight and are shuttled to another aircraftWhen all passengers boarded the main aircraft, airliners depart
7Example: KLIA as hub (HUB) Kuala Terengganu (S1) Ipoh, Perak (S5) Hub-departured a/cHub-departured a/cKLIA(HUB)Hub-arrival a/cKuantan, Pahang (S2)Melaka (S4)Johor Baru (S3)
8Types of Hub Networking hub International hub Regional hub Domestic hub
9Atlanta AirportHartsfield-Jackson Atlanta International Airport is considered to be the world's busiest airport, handling over 90 million travellers and 700,000t of cargo each yearLocated ten miles from downtown Atlanta, Hartsfield-Jackson Atlanta International Airport is considered to be the world's busiest airport, handling over 90 million travellers and 700,000t of cargo each year (the airport accommodated 978,824 takeoffs and landings in 2008, and handled more than 90 million passengers).Due to cost and time overruns the program was extended and the last date for completion of the projects under the new Capital Improvement Program (CIP) is The estimated cost of the programme also increased to more than $6bn.The City of Atlanta initiated the ten-year, $5.4bn Hartsfield Development Program (HDP) in 2000 to enable the airport to meet future demands, predicted to be 121 million passengers by The HDP is the largest public works project in the history of the State of Georgia.Many of the flights to the airport are domestic flights from within the United States where Atlanta serves as a major transfer point for flights to and from smaller cities throughout the Southern United States. From an international point of view the airport provides direct flights to 95 cities in 57 countries.The City of Atlanta selected law firms Kilpatrick Stockton and Johnson and Freeman to assist the Law Department on legal matters relating to the airport expansion. Harper Partners Incorporated, Heery International, SDG Associates, Matrix 3D and Richard and Wittschiebe Architects are the companies that make up the architectural and engineering team overseeing the HDP. The expansion plans include:New consolidated rental car facility (CONRAC)Expansion of the east international terminalNew fifth runwayProposed new south terminalSupport facilitiesOther airfield improvementsImprovements to the Central Passenger Terminal Complex (CPTC)The hold baggage screening rooms and fifth runway extension were completed in CONRAC was completed in The new south international terminal will be completed in 2011 and the south gate complex will be completed in 2015.The massive project, involved building fill dirt foundations 11-storeys high in some places on the site and also destroyed some surrounding neighbourhoods. The runway has also cut off two cemeteries so that families will only be able to visit them occasionally.Statistics show that Hartsfield-Jackson International Airport is one of the most delay-impacted airports in the United States. The new unrestricted air carrier runway is an attempt to cut these delays by half. The fifth runway opened on 27 May It bridges Interstate 285 (the perimeter) on the south side of the airport.Fifth runway (R10-28)The runway is located 4,200ft south of the airport's southernmost runway, 9R-27L. It has a full-length parallel taxiway and dual north-south taxiways to connect to the existing airfield. The runway is designed to be able to accommodate CAT III operations (takeoffs and landings in all weather conditions).Costing $1.28bn, the 9,000ft runway is the first addition to the Atlanta airport since The fifth runway is expected to increase the capacity for landings and takeoffs by 40%, from an average of 184 flights an hour to 237 flights an hour."Hartsfield-Jackson International Airport is one of the most delay-impacted airports in the United States."Runway 10-28The contractor for this section of the runway was Archer Western Contractor Limited, who also constructed a parallel 137m-wide taxiway bridge about 61m from the main runway. Bovis Lend Lease is the senior company of a joint-venture team (Hartsfield-Jackson Construction Management), which managed the overall construction of the £1.2bn runway.Most aircraft will touch down before they cross the bridged section, but some smaller aircraft are likely to make contact with the ground directly on top of the road tunnel. The bridge will be able to withstand a load of up to 606,271t, which is slightly more than the weight of wide-bodied Boeing 747s and the Airbus A380.Runway also crosses over ten traffic lands of Interstate 285, with two-thirds of the runway pavement on the west side and the remainder across the road on the east. Linking the two sections is a $159m bridge, 3,640m long and 152m wide.Other contractors involved in the project include: Allied RMC (Atlanta, Georgia), who had a concrete batch operating on the site to provide concrete walls more than 3ft thick on which the high-strength beams rest; Pioneer Concrete Pumping (Smyrna, Georgia), who provided pumps for the concrete; 5R Contractors (a consortium of CW Matthews Contracting Company, APAC-Georgia and Thrasher Trucking Company), who won the $350m earthmoving contract; and Yancey Brothers Company (Atlanta, Georgia) who provided servicing and maintenance for the earthmoving equipment.The other companies in the JV are DMJM Aviation, Thacker Operating Company, Louis Berger and Associates and Luster CM Incorporated. The runway was completed during 2006.Control tower"The new unrestricted air carrier runway is an attempt to cut these delays by half."A new FAA air traffic control tower was also constructed to provide a clear line-of-sight to the new runway complex. The new control tower is the tallest airport control tower in the US, with a height of over 398ft. The old control tower, 585ft away from the new control tower, was demolished in August 2006.It was also involved in: the replacement of 4.5 million feet of low-voltage signal cable in the automated people mover; the aviation cargo buildings expansion; renovation of the passenger loading bridges; a 250,000ft² renovation of concourse C, and similar renovations in concourse D; a 10,000ft² addition and 10,000ft² renovation to the south terminal baggage claim equipment and facilities; a 20,000ft² conference centre; an 84,444ft² expansion to concourse A; renovation of the interior of concourse E; and a 750ft addition to the international concourse, to include a three-storey expansion and four international flight boarding gates.The Hartsfield-Jackson Construction Management venture was one of only two construction managers selected for the overall $5.4bn airport redevelopment plan.Other projectsThe terminal building will have 1.2 million ft² of space for 12 gates, federal inspection services, baggage handling facilities, flight / baggage information systems and retail space. There will also be a 1,100-vehicle car park. The terminal will be located at the east end of the airfield, close to the existing international concourse E.Boyken International, in partnership with Connico Incorporated (both of Atlanta, Georgia) and Gateway Designers were contracted to manage the costs and design of the estimated $1.35bn east international terminal programme.East international terminal (Maynard H Jackson Jr International Terminal)"The new ATC tower is the tallest in the country."Opened in 2009, the Consolidated Car Rental (CONRAC) facility is located south of Camp Creek Parkway and west of Interstate I-85 on a 100ac site that was then rental car space. The $480m contract for construction management was won by a joint venture consisting of Jacobs Engineering Group Incorporated, E.R. Mitchell and Turner Construction.Car rental(CONRAC)RLB/HNTB (a joint venture between Leo A Daly Company, Khafra Engineering Incorporated, Anthony C Baker Architects and Planners PC and Browder and LeGuizmon) is the overall project manager of the new terminal. Construction started in 2008, with completion expected in April 2012.The project included two four-level garage structures totaling 8,500 spaces, a 60,000ft² customer service facility, on-site roadways and vehicle storage areas, fuelling and wash facilities (including 140 gas pumps and 30 wash bays), a 73ac site preparation and site development, a 17ac public car park, an Automated People Mover (APM) system with stations at the passenger terminal complex, the new convention centre and the CONRAC facility, a maintenance facility, and a road with bridges from Airport Boulevard across I-85, CSX and MARTA to the CONRAC facility.The airport's underground APM, connecting all concourses with the terminal, consists of 49 vehicles operating for over 20h each day throughout the week. The time between the trains at any of the 13 stations is approximately 2min. With an investment of $163,000, the APM transports around 200,000 passengers between the terminal and the six concourses.Automated people mover (APM)The APM is a unique feature of the CONRAC facility. It reduces pollution and improves air quality by eliminating the need for shuttle buses. This also reduces traffic congestion.South terminalThe south terminal would be connected to the existing terminals via an expanded APM system (to and from the CPTC). It would also require an expanded terminal area roadway network, enabling direct access to the terminal from major interstate highways.If predicted growth of air traffic becomes reality, the airport will need 31 additional domestic gates by It is envisaged that these gates will be located in a new terminal at an estimated cost of $1.22bn, south of the existing terminal."The terminal building will contain approximately 900,000ft² of space for ten gates."Plans have not yet been finalised for this construction, as it is dependent upon demand.The central passenger terminal complex has also been renovated to accommodate the rising number of travellers passing through Hartsfield-Jackson International Airport. To improve passenger service upgrades have occurred, including: curbside services, security checkpoints, ticket counters, interior finishes, concessions, baggage, make-up facilities, baggage claim areas, vertical transportation, moving sidewalks and expand existing concourses.Central passenger terminal complex improvementsMajor upgrades included cosmetic enhancement of the CPTC, a terminal ceiling replacement program, HVAC equipment, drives and control systems to increase performance and new parking revenue control systems.Further modification included taxiway enhancements as well as the expansion of air cargo and aircraft maintenance facilities. Many of these renovations were undertaken by the already-mentioned joint venture companies."The airport has also embarked on a four-year $11m telecoms infrastructure upgrade programme."Improvement projects included airside modifications and upgrades, the extension of runway 9L-27R by 500ft to the east and 911ft to the west, and the construction of various connector taxiways. Approximately $381 million was earmarked for this additional work.Further improvementsFuture demand may support the need for additional flight kitchens, ground service equipment maintenance facilities, airport support facilities, aircraft maintenance and cargo facilities. The development program locates these facilities between runway 9R-27L and the new fifth runway.AirTran Airways had completed a $14.5m hangar facility at the airport, which is the airline's regional hub. It is located on the northwest corner of the airport, off Loop Road between the Delta Air Lines Inc's Technical Operations Center North and the city fuel farm. The 56,000ft² hangar is large enough to hold two Boeing 717 jets simultaneously and also has a 20,000ft², two-storey office building attached.The timescale for these projects will continue beyond the HDP, and will cost an estimated $637m. The 35-year-old runway 8R-26L was also renovated and reopened in 2006.In May 2006 the airport embarked on a three-phase, four-year, $11m telecommunications infrastructure upgrade program to bring state-of-the-art voice, video and data communications to every part of the airport for passengers, employees and tenants.Telecommunications improvementsThe programme was rolled out in three phases, the first two of which involved building new telecommunications rooms, raceways, conduits, and cable trays and then installing a centralised, OC-192 fibre-based backbone for all voice, video and data traffic. The project contract was awarded to LGC Wireless.
10Changi AirportSingapore Changi Airport is a major aviation hub in AsiaSingapore Changi Airport is a major aviation hub in Asia. It is located in Changi, about 20km east-north-east of Singapore centre. The airport is operated by the Civil Aviation Authority of Singapore (CAAS), employs over 13,000 people and inputs S$4.5bn into the Singaporean economy.The Singaporean Government made a decision to build Changi in 1975 following congestion at the other airports in Singapore. Phase one of the airport opened in The airport is experiencing rapid growth. In 2005, the airport handled a record 32.4 million passengers, which was a 7% increase over This makes it the 26th-busiest airport in the world and the sixth busiest in Asia by passenger traffic.Changi has also attracted low-cost airlines with a new $45m budget terminal, which opened on 26 March The airport also has the JetQuay terminal which is a dedicated commercially important person (CIP) terminal that opened in September 2006 (this is the first of its kind in Asia).Incentives such as the Air Hub Development Fund, first introduced in 2003, have attracted airlines to the airport. A new S$300m fund to strengthen Changi's hub status started in 2007 when the previous S$210m fund expired in 2006.Changi Airport actually earned the distinction of being named the 'Best Airport of the World' in 2006 by Skytrax and is also rated by Skytrax as the only five-star airport in the world.This area was chosen because land could be reclaimed from both swamp and sea and thus not use any of the valuable land in Singapore, and also noise pollution from landing aircraft was minimised by the aircraft approach being over the sea.The airport was constructed at the tip of the main island at Changi and required an extensive land reclamation project.Changi phase one and twoLand reclamation works involved the use of over 52,000,000m³ of landfill and seafill. Around 2km² of swamp land was cleared and filled with 12,000,000m³ of earth from the hills nearby and a further 40,000,000m³ of sand were used to fill up the seabed, creating half of the airport's total land area. Land reclamation was carried out by PentaOcean Construction of Japan.Phase one of construction included the first passenger terminal building, the first runway, 45 aircraft parking bays and supporting facilities and structures, including a huge maintenance hangar, the first fire station, workshops and administrative offices, an airfreight complex, two cargo agents buildings, in-flight catering kitchens and an 80m-high control tower."In 2005, Changi airport handled a record 32.4 million passengers."Phase-two construction included the completion of a second runway, 23 more aircraft parking bays, the second fire station and a third cargo agent building.A further parallel runway 02R/20L (2,748m) was built 1.8km to the east of 02C/20C (opened in 2004) but currently this is only used by Singapore Air Force and forms part of Changi Airbase to the East. The new runway is expected to be extended and eventually be turned into a third runway for airport use in its future expansion plans.The airport has two parallel runways, 02L/20R (4,000m) and 02C/20C (4,000m). 02L/20R was completed and opened in 1981 as part of the first phase. The second runway 02C/20C was constructed completely on reclaimed land and was opened in phase two.RunwaysIt does not however provide the frills that the main terminals provide; for example, a shuttle bus instead of a people-mover system connects the budget terminal to the main terminals, and no aerobridges are provided to connect the plane and terminal building.The budget terminal serves budget airlines and charges lower landing fees, handling fees and airport tax as compared to the main terminal. The budget terminal can handle 2.7 million passengers a year, has ten contact bays and a concourse floor area of 25,000m².Budget terminalHowever, essential services such as air-conditioning, duty-free shops and food and drink outlets are provided. Currently only Tiger Airways uses the budget terminal.Terminal 3 opened on 9 January 2008 and expands Singapore Changi Airport's annual capacity by 22 million passengers to 68.7 million."Changi International Airport's roof allows soft natural light into the building while keeping the tropical heat out."Changi airport terminal 3The S$1.75bn ($900m) project features the new terminal building as well as a new baggage-handling facility, an automated people mover connecting the three terminals, a new nine-storey Crown Plaza hotel (7,700m² site – accommodating 350 guests) and 28 new aerobridge gates, of which eight will be able to handle the next generation of large aircraft, the Airbus A380.There is 25,000m² of floor space in the terminal for 100 retail and over 40 food and drink outlets and also 20 service concessions. In May 2006, the topping-out ceremony for Singapore Changi Airport's terminal 3 was conducted to mark the completion of the main terminal building's structure and the beginning of its interior fit-out. The terminal underwent testing and inspection from November to December 2007 and was given the go-ahead to open.The new terminal 3 building was designed by CPG Consultants Pte Ltd and has a gross floor area of 430,000m². Spread over seven levels (of which three are underground) the terminal houses 28 boarding gates and increases car parking by 1,800 spaces.The A380 landed at the airport in November 2005 and was able to test for the first time at Changi a triple passenger-loading bridge (this was the only one in service in the world at the time).The roof of the new terminal, designed by SOM (Skidmore, Owings and Merrill), features a unique architecture, which allows soft natural light into the building while keeping the tropical heat out. Terminal 3's roof has 919 skylights with specially designed reflector panels that will automatically adjust themselves to allow an optimal amount of soft and uniform daylight into the terminal building.Features of terminal 3Another feature is the five-storey-high vertical garden, called the 'green wall'. This spans 300m across the main building so that it can be seen from both the departure and arrival halls. The 'green wall' is covered with climbing plants and is interspersed with four cascading waterfalls (helping to regulate the internal temperature). In addition there is a 300m-long sculptured sandstone art wall display located below.At night, the skylights glow with artificial lighting, delicately concealed below the reflector panels. The building also has glass façades along both the landside and airside of terminal 3, expanding the sense of openness.Baggage handling and screening systemsThe sorting of bags is primarily be based on a tilt-tray solution with Crisbag integrated into the system to handle all transfer baggage in the terminal, to function as a high-speed transport system for baggage between the three terminals (baggage moves at around 7m a second) and also function as the early baggage storage system. Transfer baggage is discharged directly from Crisbag to the baggage carousels in terminal 3."Changi Airport's 'green wall' is covered with climbing plants and is interspersed with four cascading waterfalls."FKI Logistex, through its Danish subsidiary, Crisplant a/s, was appointed the leader of a consortium to supply the complete baggage handling system for the new terminal.The complete system comprises two S-3000E tilt-tray sorters, each approximately 1,000m long, a 10,000m-long Crisbag system for the high-speed connection between terminals and the early baggage storage system, check-in conveyors, racetracks and claim carousels. Crisplant also supplied the computer control system.The vast majority of deliveries began early in 2006 and will continue throughout the year.The contract specified delivery of products from L-3's complete line of automated hold baggage-screening systems for the inspection of check-in luggage, including VIS 108 and MVT integrated level 1 systems as well as certified and computed tomography eXaminer 3DX 6000 systems for level 3 resolution.The baggage screening solution was provided by L-3 Security and Detection Systems in the first agreement of its kind to look to one provider for all certified systems.Airbus A380 preparationsThe hold rooms themselves have been enlarged to cater for the larger number of passengers using the A380s. There are 11 new gates at terminal 1 and 2.In August 2005, Changi unveiled the first of 11 specially built gates capable of handling the giant Airbus A380 aircraft. Costing S$15m, the gates enable passengers to get on the upper cabin of the new 555-seater aircraft directly from the gate hold rooms.Singapore Airlines was the launch customer for the giant aircraft. It has placed an order worth up to $8.6bn for ten planes, with an option for 15 more. Because of this, eight of terminal 3's 28 gates have the capability to handle the new superjumbo.In all, the Civil Aviation Authority of Singapore has spent S$60m in upgrading its terminal buildings and airport infrastructure ahead of the arrival of the first A380. At the terminal buildings, besides enlarged gate hold rooms and new gates, the airport has also extended the baggage belt carousels at the A380 gates to 90m (from 70m).A resurfacing project worth S$50m for both of the main runways was started in September 2007Widening the runway and taxiway intersections to make turning easier (the runways and taxiways themselves are deemed sufficient to cope with the A380's size and weight)While the gates, the baggage-handling system and the lounges of the new terminal were all designed with the A380 in mind, the airport's existing airfield and terminal infrastructure are also being redeveloped. These works include:Downsize some gates to allow the A380 to use existing gates without compromising safe distances between aircraft"In August 2005, Changi unveiled the first of 11 specially built gates capable of handling the A380."Expand the baggage handling system in terminals 1 and 2 to accommodate additional carousels and longer baggage beltsAdd seating to departure lounges that will serve the A380MRT extension and automated people moverChangi Airport has also built a S$135m automated people mover system (APMS) to aid transfers between the three terminals.The station was completed in February 2002 although part of it is unused pending the completion of terminal 3.As part of an expansion of the Singapore mass rapid transit (MRT) system, the East–West line was extended to a new station at Changi International Airport, situated underground between terminal 2 and the site for terminal 3.The APMS is a ten-train service running between seven stations along 6.5km of elevated train tracks (there are two stations each in terminals 1 and 2 and three in terminal 3).NCS Communications Engineering is the project consultant for the total airport management system as well as airport information and telecommunication systems for terminal 3.Other contractorsThe trains themselves feature dedicated areas for baggage trolleys and LCD screens in the train cabins display flight times and other airport information.Fire Safety Design & Engineering performed CFD simulations and design of the 'depressurised cabin' principle for SHEVS and CRISP (evacuation simulation) in close collaboration with PMD Architects (Singapore). Woodhead International planned the interior of the terminal.PWD Consultants Pte Ltd prepared reinforced concrete and steel structural details for authority submission and tender purposes.
11Heathrow Airport Heathrow: Airport Hub Of The UK London Heathrow airport is used by over 90 AIRLINES that connect to over 180 international destinations.Nearly 46% of the airport's passengers choose Heathrow as an intermediary for their long-haul flights.Heathrow handles over 469,000 air transport movements a year, carrying nearly 68 million passengers around the world.London Heathrow Airport (LHA/EGLL), United KingdomLondon Heathrow International Airport is one of the busiest airports in Europe handling over 68 million passengers and 1.3 million tons of cargo each year. The airport is used by over 90 airlines that connect to over 180 international destinations. Nearly 46% of the airport's passengers choose Heathrow as an intermediary for their long-haul flights.The airport lies 22km west of central London and is the only airport hub of the UK. The airport site encompasses an area of 12.14km². There are currently five terminals with two parallel main runways and a crosswind runway.Heathrow International Airport underwent a major expansion in 2008 with the completion of Terminal 5. The second phase of the project will be completed in The airport expansion also includes refurbishment of terminals 1,3 and 4, a new air traffic control tower, Terminal 5 station, tunnels for the extension of both the Heathrow Express (HexEx) and the Piccadilly Line and a motorway spur road from the M25.Heathrow expansionThe airport is owned and operated by BAA, which is also responsible for the UK's other prime airports including Gatwick, Stansted, Southampton, Glasgow, Edinburgh and Aberdeen.Proposals for a new Heathrow Hub railway station have also been given to connect Guildford, Reading and London Waterloo with the South West of the Airport."Heathrow International Airport underwent a major expansion in 2008 with the completion of Terminal 5."The cylindrical screen is 10m in diameter and combines ten powerful projectors with edge matching and blending to give a continuous field of view.A new air traffic control (ATC) tower was installed at the airport in April The 285ft tower provides complete unobstructed views. The UK National Air Traffic Services (NATS) installed a BEST ATC tower simulator from Micro Nav. A 360° 3D panoramic display gives a realistic view from both the existing and the new towers.ATC tower simulator and radar equipmentRunwayThe tower is equipped with Terma's information support system, ATC*ISS tower. One of the best features of ATC*ISS is the high ratio of COTS (commercial off the shelf) components since this means a high up-time, a low failure rate, modest maintenance costs and overall systems reliability and safety.Heathrow Airport has regular train services between London's Paddington station and Heathrow Terminal 5 station or Heathrow Central station. London Underground's Piccadilly line also serves the airport. Another train, Heathrow Connect serves Central London, West London and the airport.Road and rail infrastructureHeathrow Airport has two runways. Runway 09L/27R is 3,901m long while runway 09R/27L is 3,660m long. The two asphalt-surfaced runways are aligned in east-west directions.Car parkingThere are bus services available from the airport to various parts of the UK. A door-to-door London hotel bus service is also available from all terminals.Heathrow International Airport provides four categories of parking. Short stay parking is available for up to five hours. Heathrow business parking provides facility for three to four days. With valet parking, travellers can have a chaffeur park their cars in a secure place and return to them when they return. Long-stay parking is also available at all the terminals of the airport.Terminal 1 underwent a major refurbishment in 2005 with the opening of the new eastern extension. It now covers an area of 49,654m² with added space in the departure lounge. Terminal 1 has arrivals from the UK and Ireland on the first floor and other countries on the ground floor. The first floor also handles departures. The majority of domestic flights arrive and depart from Terminal 1. The terminal is scheduled to be demolished in 2013 to make way for the second phase of Terminal 2.Terminals 1-4Terminal 2 was the oldest terminal at Heathrow Airport and stands on an area of 74,601m². It handles 8.5 million passengers annually with 30 airlines operating through this terminal. Terminal 2 houses check-in and arrivals on the first floor and departures on the second floor. The terminal was shut down in November 2009 to be demolished. A new and bigger Terminal 2 will be built in its place. The first phase of the new terminal is scheduled to be completed by 2013 while the second phase will be completed by 2019."Heathrow International Airport handles over 1.3 million tons of cargo each year."Terminal 3 has arrivals and check-in on the ground floor and departures on the second floor. Nearly 15 million long-haul flight passengers use Terminal 3 annually through 35 airlines. In 2006, the terminal received a new £105m Pier 6 which helped accommodate the Airbus A380. A new four lane drop-off area and a large pedestrianised plaza were added to the terminal in There are plans for a £1bn terminal upgrade to take place in the next ten years.Terminal 4 has received a £200m upgrade which includes redevelopment of forecourt, extended check-in area, renovated piers and departure lounges, two new stands and a baggage system. It is presently the base of Sky Team alliance and can accommodate 45 airlines. Terminal 4 handles arrivals, check-in and departures on the first floor. Heathrow Cargo Tunnel connects the terminal with Terminal 1, 2 and 3.Terminal 5In 2007 it was announced by the Transport Secretary Ruth Kelly that there would be a sixth terminal at Heathrow as well as a 2,200m third runway and this will be underway by Public consultation on the proposed project is currently underway.The planning process itself cost nearly £63m over a period of 14 years. This cost was borne mostly by the British Airports Authority (BAA) and British Airways, the two main proponents of the project.The construction of the Heathrow Airport Terminal 5 (T5) in London was approved by the Secretary of State on 20 November 2001, after the longest public inquiry in British history (46 months)."Heathrow is one of the busiest airports in Europe and passenger numbers are expected to grow after the expansion."Phase two of the project, which is underway, involves the construction of a £400m second satellite terminal building adjacent to the original T5 and also the associated aircraft stands and service infrastructure to accept A380 size superjumbos.Construction of the new terminal started in September 2002; phase one of the project was completed and opened in March 2008 with the second phase opening in The project required an estimated investment (mostly from BAA) of over £4.2bn.The T5 retail floor space covers around 18,580m². It includes 150 retail units including around 25 restaurants and approximately 3,250m² of duty free shopping. A French spa, Be Relax, opened at the terminal in 2009.Heathrow is one of the busiest airports in Europe and passenger numbers are expected to grow by 27 million a year as a result of phase one, and then by a further three million a year after phase two. The airport currently employs 70,000 personnel and expects to increase this by 16,500 as a result of the expansion.Terminal 5 contractorsThe T5 Agreement was the result and is a legally binding contract between BAA and its key suppliers. Through the agreement BAA accepted that it carried all of the risk for the construction project. This allowed the contractors to concentrate on the project and solving problems rather than avoiding possible litigation for problems arising and time delays.Terminal 5 was a large infrastructure project involving over 60 contractors, 16 major projects and 147 sub-projects on a 260ha site. With such a project BAA realised that if the projects were to be built on time and within budget that a unique approach would be required.Two of the major projects which were ahead of schedule included the new terminal building itself and the new aircraft control tower. In April 2004 the first section of the 'single wave' roof (2,500t) of the T5 building was lifted into position and by March 2005 the sixth and final section of the roof was in position. The final roof weighed a total of 18,500t and contained 22 steel box section rafters supported by 11 pairs of supporting abutments.Terminal and control towerThe main terminal building (housing concourse A) is 396m long, 176m wide and 39m high and contains 80,000t of structural steel, while a satellite building (housing concourse B) adjoining this is 442m long, 42m wide and 19.5m high. The terminal contains 175 lifts, 131 escalators and 18km of conveyor belts for baggage handling. A strict ban was placed on any construction activity over 43m high without prior arrangement in case it interfered with Heathrow radar.In October 2004 the 900t, 32m-high top 'cone' section of the control tower was transported 2km to the installation site following its construction within the Heathrow site. In April 2005 the new air traffic control tower was topped out and in March 2005 the control tower was erected to its full height of 87m.Phase one of the project provides 47 aircraft stands and phase two will provide a further 13 to make a total of 60.The cone, which contains the control room, is supported on top of an 85m-high, 4.6m-diameter triangular steel mast anchored to the ground with three pairs of cable stays. The steel mast contains two lifts (one internal and one external) to provide access to the control room. The control tower was built in 12m-high sections (the cone being raised by special jacks 12m at a time) and became operational during the third quarter of 2006."The Terminal 5 infrastructure project involved over 60 contractors."In September 2004 the HexEx tunnel was connected with T5 for the first time after four and a half months of tunnelling with a tunnel boring machine (TBM). The tunnel connection was made with a spur tunnel (headshunt) connected to the existing Heathrow Express. The tunnel was lined with 1,419 pre-cast concrete rings containing polypropylene fibre for fire resistance. There are two 1.7km tunnels for the HexEx and two 1.9km tunnels for the PiccEx.Beyond the construction of the terminal itself, investment has been required in order to improve the transport infrastructure between the centre of London and Heathrow Airport. Some of the major projects were the construction of tunnels for the extension of both the Heathrow Express (HexEx) and the Piccadilly Line (PiccEx).Rail infrastructure developmentThe T5 station is staffed by BAA staff unlike the underground stations at Heathrow Terminal 4 and Terminals 1 to 3 and was completed in March There are currently no plans to connect Terminals 4 and 5 by a direct rail service.Terminal 5 has its own modern rail station located in the basement of concourse A. The station has six rail platforms: two for the London Underground Piccadilly Line extension; two for the Heathrow Express extension, and a third pair built for potential future rail expansion links to the west.Road infrastructure developmentThe T5 expansion also required additional and improved road infrastructure, including internal airside roads (completed in March 2005) and also connecting roads from the current road transport network. A spur road from the M25 contructed by Balfour Beatty opened in April 2008 and the road around the western perimeter of the Heathrow site was realigned to provide improved access.Four tunnel boring machines and 105,500 concrete tunnel lining segments were used to create a network of nine separate tunnels including the UK's seventh-longest road tunnel and four independent rail tunnels.Road vehicle access"Investment was required in order to improve the transport infrastructure between Heathrow and Central London."In addition to a growth in the transport capacity servicing Heathrow Airport, BAA also developed a 4,000-space multi-storey car park for passenger use.The 6.2km ART consists of two parallel single carriageways with a hard shoulder in two separate tunnel bores. Each tunnel has an internal diameter of 8.2m, which is the equivalent width of two fire engines, and is connected via a series of cross passages designed to ensure the safe evacuation of vehicles or people in the event of a vehicle accident in either tunnel.An airside road tunnel (ART), which became operational in March 2005, provides road vehicle access from the central terminal area to aircraft stands at the western end of the airfield and T5 campus. It is an airside road and so is not accessible to the general public.In July 2009, the personal rapid transit (PRT) system was put into operational testing at the airport. The PRT system consists of a series of driverless vehicles capable of transporting passengers and their luggage. The PRT system has its own dedicated guideway from the business car park to Terminal 5. The £25m system is the first of its kind in the world.The new T5 also incorporates a track transit system. This is an automated transportation system that transfers passengers between the main terminal and its satellite buildings. Transportation is provided by an automated people mover (APM). These are driverless trains which run on a dedicated subsurface guideway.Automated people moverThe SWOT is also a fundamental component in enabling BAA to recycle the run off water and re-use it in T5's non-potable water system. The tunnel and infrastructure has been designed so that in T5's operational phase, clean water is pumped back up the tunnel and used in systems such as toilet flushes and heating systems. The SWOT comprises a single bore tunnel, 4.1km in length.The storm water outfall tunnel (SWOT) forms the drainage and pollution control system for surface water run-off from the T5 campus, to a reservoir 2km to the south of the airport. At the southern end of the tunnel the run-off water passes through facilities that 'clean' it before it is discharged.Storm water outfall tunnel (SWOT)Water course modification at the Heathrow site has also involved the diversion of two man-made "rivers" (built during the reign of both Henry VIII and Charles I to supply water to various Palaces) (twin rivers diversion scheme) into new channels.It was expected that the number of people using cars, taxis, buses and coaches in and out of Heathrow would more than double once T5 became operational. This does not take into account extra lorries and other heavy goods vehicles travelling in and out to service the airport on roads that are already three times busier than the national average.Congestion, noise and air pollutionIn 1991, approximately 13.8 million people travelled to Heathrow by car and 5.8 million by taxi. By the year 2016, when BAA expects T5 to be fully operational, the figures are estimated to increase to 28.1 million by car and 11.9 million by taxi. Another obvious problem associated with the increase in traffic in the area is a worsening of noise and air pollution."The baggage handling system at T5 is the largest baggage handling system in Europe for a single terminal."They claimed that a failure to develop the site would lose Britain over £600m a year in export earnings. Once lost, that trade would be unlikely to return, and it is thought that the UK economy will have felt the impact as foreign investment drifted to Europe (particularly as European airports such as Charles De Gaulle in Paris, Hamburg and Schipol in Amsterdam are trying to attract business from Heathrow).Advocates of T5 countered that the increase in the capacity of Heathrow will make best use of airport's existing infrastructure and land (nearly 3,000 acres).Additionally, the noise climate around Heathrow Airport has been improving for many years, even though the number of aircraft movements has increased considerably. This improvement is continuing, but is inevitably slowing down as older, noisy aircraft have now been phased out. Advocates claimed that even with Terminal 5, the noise climate would be similar to today because it would not require any increase in night flights or in the night noise quota at Heathrow.The reason why these extra passengers can be accommodated with so few additional flights is that the number of passengers per flight is increasing all the time. The development of aircraft such as the Airbus A380 superjumbo, a 555-seater, double-decker aircraft, will reinforce this trend.Passenger flows have been optimised so that queuing at the airport will be kept to a minimum. British Airways have plans to move towards 80% of its passengers using online or self-service check-in.T5 will rely much more on passengers using online check-in or self-service kiosks when they reach the airport. To this end there are 96 self-service kiosks, 140 customer service desks and 96 fast bag drops.Check-in"Heathrow T5 will rely much more on passengers using online check-in or self-service kiosks."The baggage handling system at T5 is the largest baggage handling system in Europe for a single terminal. There will be two systems including a main baggage sorter and a fast track system.Baggage handling systemsT5 opening dayBags undergo several processes on the way through the system including automatic identification, explosives screening, fast tracking for urgent bags, sorting and automatic sorting and passenger reconciliation.The system was designed by an integrated team from BAA, BA and Vanderlande Industries of the Netherlands, and will handle both intra-terminal and inter-terminal luggage and will actually process 70,000 bags a day.New airport terminals are usually plagued by faults and problems within the first couple of days of opening and T5 was no exception. Despite running a six-month trial, requiring the use of 16,000 volunteers to put every aspect of the terminal to the test from parking and toilets to check-in and seating, the terminal experienced a host of major problems on day one.For passengers, staff unfamiliarity with the check-in system led to flight delays, which in turn overloaded the baggage handling system. The end result was the cancellation of over 300 flights and the mishandling of thousands of items of luggage. The debacle cost BA at least £16m, and resulted in the resignation of two senior managers.On the first day of operations staff experienced difficulty getting through security into the building, once there they had navigational problems, and delays were compounded by a lack of available car parks.In January 2009 a third runway at Heathrow received government approval after months of debate and controversy. The government wants BAA to open the runway to serve the airport's expansion as soon as possible and definitely before It is commonly thought that a planning application will be made in 2010 and construction could start as early as 2012.Heathrow third runwayT5 was branded a "disaster" by government ministers, with the Commons Transport Select Committee launching and enquiry. The subsequent transfer of long haul flights from T4 was delayed, finally taking place in June 2009.Over 50 businesses support the plan but it always faced fierce opposition from environmentalists and if the Conservative Party gets elected at the next election they have pledged to scrap the plans.
13ADVANTAGES of HUB to Passenger More choices of route from hub,More choices of route, flight combination (for passengers): passengers can make a choice to continue their destination from hub airportConcentrate traffic:Only Hub have sufficient volume of traffic to offer passengers and cargo the wide variety of destinationsMoving large numbers of peopleMoving large numbers of people to many cities many time a day by funneling passengers through a central location (hub), where they can pick up connecting flightHub airports are important because only they have sufficient volume of traffic to offer passengers and freight the wide variety of destinations and frequency of flights needed in today’s globalised world.
14ADVANTAGES of HUB to Airlines Airlines can better use their aircraft:Passenger with many more flight combinations, although these combination almost always transfer at the hub,Flights from hubs are non-stop using larger and more comfortable aircraft while flights to spoke airports are often use smaller aircraft.Airlines can increase fare:because as they develop a hub, their products become more attractive; more direct flights, more frequent flights, more connection and with these, they gain ability to mark up prices because according to data, customers are willing to pay for those product qualities.Decrease the cost of airlinesThe more intense the hub-and-spoke system, the lower the unit cost should be.Hub-and-spoke should decrease the cost of airlinesThe more intense the hub-and-spoke system, the lower the unit cost should beHistorical data (pre and post deregulation) should indicate this trend – Study in 1986
16Disadvantages of HUB & SPOKE HUB AIRPORT BECOMING VERY BUSYdifficult to handleAMPLIFIES DELAYStop, change aircraft, Almost always require transfer at hubLONGER TIME OF FLIGHTrelate to the changes of flightCREATE PROBLEM FOR ATCscheduled of flightsHowever, in recent years many large hubs have become congested, leading to frequent delays for business travelers and disruptions of freight shipments.major expansion projects have been undertaken by many airports to reduce congestion, improve amenities, and generally enhance air travel flow.
17Goal: To Become a HubMany main airports in the world have set their goal to become a hub.Especially in the Far East, India and Middle East.There is intense competition amongst these countries to achieve this goal.This intense competition has made it more challenging for airport managers and operators.It has become a government effort, no more just the airport owners or operators.Professionals and consultants are being recruited to manage these airports and provide advice.
18Why to become a hub. Good image and name for the nation. Better economy for the nation.More revenues for the airport operators/ownersFaster and attractive return on the airport project investments.More tourism for the nation.Large Number of Passengers Baggage to Handled.-handled for on-line or interline transfer rather than beingoriginating or destined baggage.Accommodate Large Numbers of Passengers.-moving between gates at the terminals rather than fromthe landside to the gate and vice versa.Handles Satisfactorily Waves of Passengers.-fed by waves of arriving and departing aircraft.Required Mechanized Aids to Circulation.-inter-gate transfer might require considerable distances tobe cover in relatively short connection times.Requirement for Quick Baggage Handling.-essential to have accurate on-line and interliningbaggage transfer capability.Good Enough of Facilities.-act between international and domestic flights.
19Steps to become HUBProvide Excellent Services (both Airside and Terminal)Provide Adequate FacilitiesBuild Attractive and Effective Terminal.Heavy Promotions.Suitable charge fees.
20Steps 1 – Provide Excellent Services There are four examples of services to make the airport as a major hub:Ground handlingGround handlingRefuelingATCPassengers check inImmigration and Custom servicesEmbarkation and disembarkation of passengersMovements of baggageFast landing requestFast takeoff requestGood MROFast flight planningGood securityMRO
21Steps 1 – Provide Excellent Services Baggage loadingToilet service
22Steps 1 – Provide Excellent Services These are the ‘four pillars of strength’ that features an aircraft taking off smoothly and successfully.Food serviceGround Handling, Cargo Handling, In-Flight Catering as well as Aircraft maintenance & Engineering.Refueling service
23Step 2 – Provide Adequate Facilities Multiple and long runways for efficient an safe landingsApron large enough for many aircrafts to parkNavigation aids for safe and easy landingsAvailability of fuelWarehousingHangarMaintenance Repair & Overhaul (MRO)
24O’Hare Airport Chicago x 7 runways London Heathrow x 3 runways
25Step 3 – Build Attractive and Effective Terminal Ambiance and unique architecturalPassengers friendlyGood and adequate signageLess walking for passengersMany activities for passengersEfficient public transportationHotels and rest rooms walking distanceExcellent retail storesBecoming complexes/ mini townshipBranded stores
27Step 4 –Heavy Promotions AdvertisementPublic RelationsTax holidays, discounts, incentivesSpecial eventsIn case of attracting more customers and passengers to use the ERL, the company takes one step which is incur heavy promotion and also provides other ancillary activities including retail-space provisioning at KLCAT and advertising spaces on the trains, station and Info Screen.Like Malaysia Airlines giving a lot of discount for their passengers up to 70%. This Everyday Low Fares is a promotion that provide by Malaysia Airlines to attract more passengers from inside and as well as outside from this country to join their Malaysian Hospitality.
28Step 5 – Suitable charge fees. Reduction in fees during the startup (landing fees, terminal fees, etc)Improvements (renovations to terminal/offices, etc to accommodate airline operations)