1 AVIATION CRITICAL INFRASTRUCTURE, AIRPORTS & CATASTROPHES Jim Smith, PhD, P.E. American Public University System Smith-Woolwine Associates, Inc.American Public University System | Educating Those Who Serve
2 Acronyms & abbreviations AAR: After Action ReviewACI: aviation critical infrastructureCBRNE: chemical, biological, radiological, nuclear, and (high) explosiveCI: critical infrastructureCOB: continuity of businessCOG: continuity of governmentCOOP: continuity of operationsDHS: U.S. Department of Homeland SecurityDOD: U.S. Department of DefenseEDM: emergency and disaster managemetnEMA: emergency management agencyEOC: emergency operations centerFAA: Federal Aviation AdministrationHSPD: Homeland Security Presidential DirectiveIAP: incident action planICS: Incident Command SystemIT: information technologyMAC: multiagency coordination entityMANPAD: man-portable air defense systemsNIMS: National Incident Management SystemSARS: severe acute respiratory syndromeTSA: Transportation Security AdministrationAmerican Public University System | Educating Those Who Serve
3 Critical infrastructure A system that is essential for national survival or economic survivalExamplesHighwaysElectrical generation and transmissionDams and leveesHighways and bridgesAviation system
4 Aviation critical infrastructure One of 18 DHS CI sectors or 17 ASCE categoriesComprisesAirportsAirlines and planesAir cargo companies and planesGeneral aviationMilitary aviation including mobilityFAAAir traffic control systemSecurity of systemIntermodal connections to other critical infrastructuresSkilled personnel
5 Key events 9/11/2001 for intentional incidents 2003 SARS epidemic Aug-Sept 2005 Katrina for natural disastersAll three have led to changes in airport structures,policies, procedures, operations,organizations, and defenses.
7 Key terms Event – a planned happening Incident – an unplanned or unscheduled happeningDisaster – an event or incident that causes severe damage but can be handled by emergency responders with mutual aidCatastrophe – a disaster that overwhelms the capabilities of the community or region
8 What sort of catastrophes? Not limited to aviation-related disastersNatural disastersAccidentsPandemicsCivil disturbancesTerrorismWar and civil war
9 Natural disaster threats FloodsHurricanes, typhoons, cyclones, tornadoes, windstormsEarthquakesLandslidesVolcanoes and ash cloudsWildfiresBlizzards and ice stormsTsunamis
15 Why focus on airports?They are essential to receiving or sending aid in disasters and catastrophes.As fixed assets, they are vulnerable, expensive to replace, and hard to repair if damaged.Planes and people can be moved or sheltered; airports can’t.Airports are iconic.Airports have been targets of terrorists.Airports have been used inappropriately by relief efforts following disasters.
16 Airport roles in disasters Receiving aidDispatching aidQuarantine (initial)Helicopter base for rescue and reconnLogistics hub – intermodal terminusCommunications – node or backupBackup EOCSecurity area
17 Inappropriate roles for airports Command and control centersMobile hospitalsQuarantine (long-term)Reunification centersTemporary morguesLogistics storageBilletingPre-site off-airport alternatives
18 Functioning means Airport continuity of operations (COOP) Airport continuity of business (COB)COOP always applies to an airport, but COB is situationally sensitive to the scope and nature of the disaster.
19 Stages of emergency and disaster management PreventionPreparednessMitigationResponseRecoveryReconstruction
20 Sustainability Generally applied to normal range of activities Applies to structural and organization designs that promote efficient and effective operations with minimum use of resourcesCould be stretched to include activities outside the normal range => MITIGATIONAll too often overlooks disasters
21 ResiliencyAbility of a structure, organization, or system to do at least ONE of the following:to avoid damage => PREVENTIONto retain an acceptable but reduced level of functioning => MITIGATIONto return to an acceptable level of functioning after a disaster or catastrophe => MITIGATION & RECOVERY
22 It all starts locallyAll disaster response starts locally, and the local flavor will persist no matter how much the response escalates to track the evolution of the incident.If the locality involves an airport, the airport’s preparedness can condition the nature and outcomes of the response.
23 Do you have to wait 72 hours for help? Under the National Response Framework and prior doctrines, the expectation is that localities—including airports—will haveto wait about 72 hours foroutside (federal) aid.
24 Local Emergency Services Specialized Regional Response Assets EDM time spectrumStatePrivate SectorHighDoD (Title 10)Federal CivilianRequired Capabilities and ResourcesInterstate CompactsSpecialized Federal Assets (LD/HD)Local Emergency ServicesSpecialized Regional Response AssetsMutual Aid AgreementsLowPre-EventFirst 12 Hours12-48 Hours48-96 Hours30 Days
25 Cutting the 72-hour waitGet airport designated as critical infrastructure/critical facilities listSmart plans and strategiesPromoting self-help capabilitiesDeveloping special response and recovery capabilitiesGiving and receiving mutual help beyond mutual aid pacts – regional cooperation and coordination - DOGs
26 What’s a DOG Disaster Operations Group SEADOGWESTDOGNone yet in Midwest, New England, Middle Atlantic, Hawaii, and PacificAssociated with EMAC and state EMAC coordinators
29 Gulfport and Katrina“Our highway infrastructure had been destroyed, the Port had suffered catastrophic damages and the rail system was inoperable. Our airport was the primary source for receiving aid and materials. Without the airport’s quick turnaround, we would have been cut off from the world and the much needed assistance that we needed to survive.”Brent Warr, Mayor, City of Gulfport
30 Airport Response at Lake Charles – Rita 2005 PHXLCH
31 Airport Response at Beaumont-Port Arthur – Rita 2005 APASANBPT
32 Key conceptsAirports are even more critical in disasters and catastrophes.Airports are critical infrastructure.Airports must be protected from inappropriate uses.Airport design (structural, organizational, policy, and defensive) should promote continuity of operations.
33 Telling quote“In a disaster, an airport can substitute for almost anything else, but nothing can substitute for an airport.”Walter White, MEM
34 Actions to protect airport COOP/COB StructuralPolicyOrganizationalProceduralDefensiveThese are highly cross-connected.
35 Structural (Physical facilities) Redundancy on siteBack-up emergency operations center (EOC)Alternative sitesHardeningHardened communications and ITCBRNE prevention and mitigationPerimeter controlFuel system protectionAir traffic control system protectionAlternate utilitiesInteroperability standards
36 Special structural concerns Design and construction to resist damage from multihazardsRapid post-incident evaluationRapid post-incident repairCommunicationsAlternative logistics, especially fuel and electricityShelter-in-place capabilitiesSustainment for essential employeesDocumentation as-built and modified
37 EOC Nerve center for disaster operations Functions, space, connectivity, and peopleSupports and coordinates on-scene commanders operating under NIMS/ICS doctrinesCan play role in all phases of emergency and disaster managementTypically present at airports and at all levels of government and in corporationsMay go by other names but functions are the sameMAC = multiagency coordination entity, sort of a super-EOC
38 PolicySubordination of airport asset to local, regional, or national incident management systems CONTROVERSIALCOOP/COB paramount strategic objectivePre-planned responses to strategic threatsPre-arrangements with agencies and surrounding business community to help ensure COOPPro-mitigation orientationLaws controlling demonstrations and trespassProactive policing policiesFunding of preparedness and mitigation measures
39 Organizational Full NIMS/ICS implementation Joint training, drilling, and exercisingWithin airportWith surrounding agenciesWith DOD and other federal agenciesAvoidance of insurance blackballingWorker protectionWorker moraleInternal securityStandardsBackup organizational units, especially EOC
40 Operational Preparedness Alternative modes of transport Internal securityInteroperabilityStandardsPre-sitingStagingPull, not push: hold logistics at intermediate airports rather than jamming up airport(s) in the middle of the disasterOff-site logistic support and storageAvoidance of non-essential usesTraining, drilling, and exercisingStandards – national and international
41 Access and credentialing Access to airfield by mutual aid and other outside responders is a difficult issue.Credentialing of responders for on-airport action is needed.Flexibility is needed for extreme cases.
42 Defensive Intelligence Counterterrorism Active defense Passive defense SAM exclusionFlight pathsMinimize target valueTime flexibility
43 Simultaneous threatsAntagonists could possibly apply terrorism, war, or violent acts to take advantage of disruption due to natural disaster, accident, or pandemic.
44 Distant catastrophesAirports may be key assets in sending aid to distant disasters or catastrophes.Sending aid can stress airports and complicate normal COB/COOP.Distant catastrophes may send refugees and injured persons to an airport.
45 Newest challengeAirports, especially international gateway airports like ATL, BWI, PHL, and MSP, are being asked to establish facilities, plans and procedures for Emergency Repatriation Centers to receive and support U.S. citizens repatriated from overseas crises.
46 ConclusionsDisaster management at airports involves airports internally and airports in a community contextCoordination and cooperation among airports is neededStrong airport-emergency management agency cooperation and coordination is cost-effective mitigation against all hazardsPreparedness against multihazards works for natural disasters, pandemics, and manmade threatsOther components of aviation critical infrastructure have parallel concerns and needs for preparedness
47 Last word“In a disaster, an airport can substitute for almost anything else, but nothing can substitute for an airport.”But nothing matters unless the airport and its functions have been protected or restored.
48 Resources for further study Building sound emergency management into airports. Smith, J. F., Waggoner, S. S., & Hall, G. (2007). IATC 2007 Proceedings,Memphis Airport as a model for disaster response. Smith, J. F., Waggoner, S. S., & Hall, G. (2007). Crisis Response Journal 3(3),Protecting airport functionality during disaster responses: Natural disasters, accidents, and pandemics. Smith, J. F., Waggoner, S. S., Rabjohn, A., & Bachar, A. (2007). J. Emergency Mgt. 5(6),Protecting airport functionality during disaster responses: Terrorism, war, civil war, and riots. Smith, J. F., Waggoner, S. S., Rabjohn, A., & Bachar, A. (2008a). J. Emergency Mgt., 6(3),Protecting airport functionality during disaster responses: Solutions. Smith, J. F., Waggoner, S. S., Rabjohn, A., & Bachar, A. (2008b). J. Emergency Mgt., 6(4),Maintaining airport continuity of business and operations during disaster response: the role of command and control relationships with emergency management agencies. Smith, J. F. (2008). J. Bus. Continuity & Emerg. Planning, 3(1).