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Presentation on theme: "AVIATION CRITICAL INFRASTRUCTURE, AIRPORTS & CATASTROPHES"— Presentation transcript:

Jim Smith, PhD, P.E. American Public University System Smith-Woolwine Associates, Inc. American Public University System | Educating Those Who Serve

2 Acronyms & abbreviations
AAR: After Action Review ACI: aviation critical infrastructure CBRNE: chemical, biological, radiological, nuclear, and (high) explosive CI: critical infrastructure COB: continuity of business COG: continuity of government COOP: continuity of operations DHS: U.S. Department of Homeland Security DOD: U.S. Department of Defense EDM: emergency and disaster managemetn EMA: emergency management agency EOC: emergency operations center FAA: Federal Aviation Administration HSPD: Homeland Security Presidential Directive IAP: incident action plan ICS: Incident Command System IT: information technology MAC: multiagency coordination entity MANPAD: man-portable air defense systems NIMS: National Incident Management System SARS: severe acute respiratory syndrome TSA: Transportation Security Administration American Public University System | Educating Those Who Serve

3 Critical infrastructure
A system that is essential for national survival or economic survival Examples Highways Electrical generation and transmission Dams and levees Highways and bridges Aviation system

4 Aviation critical infrastructure
One of 18 DHS CI sectors or 17 ASCE categories Comprises Airports Airlines and planes Air cargo companies and planes General aviation Military aviation including mobility FAA Air traffic control system Security of system Intermodal connections to other critical infrastructures Skilled personnel

5 Key events 9/11/2001 for intentional incidents 2003 SARS epidemic
Aug-Sept 2005 Katrina for natural disasters All three have led to changes in airport structures, policies, procedures, operations, organizations, and defenses.

6 Gander on 9/12

7 Key terms Event – a planned happening
Incident – an unplanned or unscheduled happening Disaster – an event or incident that causes severe damage but can be handled by emergency responders with mutual aid Catastrophe – a disaster that overwhelms the capabilities of the community or region

8 What sort of catastrophes?
Not limited to aviation-related disasters Natural disasters Accidents Pandemics Civil disturbances Terrorism War and civil war

9 Natural disaster threats
Floods Hurricanes, typhoons, cyclones, tornadoes, windstorms Earthquakes Landslides Volcanoes and ash clouds Wildfires Blizzards and ice storms Tsunamis

10 Accidents Crashes Industrial accidents Infrastructure failure
Mechanical failure Human error

11 Pandemics SARS Bird flu Swine flu Potential bioterrorism agents
Converge with terrorism incidents

12 Civil disturbances Riots Strikes Demonstrations Boycotts
Employee sabotage

13 Terrorism CBRNE attacks MANPAD Hostages Hijacking Psychological Cyber
Chemical - sarin Biological - anthrax Radiological- BA flights London-Moscow 2005 Nuclear Explosive – Glasgow, Pan Am 103, Buncefield? MANPAD Hostages Hijacking Psychological Cyber Disinformation

14 War War Civil war

15 Why focus on airports? They are essential to receiving or sending aid in disasters and catastrophes. As fixed assets, they are vulnerable, expensive to replace, and hard to repair if damaged. Planes and people can be moved or sheltered; airports can’t. Airports are iconic. Airports have been targets of terrorists. Airports have been used inappropriately by relief efforts following disasters.

16 Airport roles in disasters
Receiving aid Dispatching aid Quarantine (initial) Helicopter base for rescue and reconn Logistics hub – intermodal terminus Communications – node or backup Backup EOC Security area

17 Inappropriate roles for airports
Command and control centers Mobile hospitals Quarantine (long-term) Reunification centers Temporary morgues Logistics storage Billeting Pre-site off-airport alternatives

18 Functioning means Airport continuity of operations (COOP)
Airport continuity of business (COB) COOP always applies to an airport, but COB is situationally sensitive to the scope and nature of the disaster.

19 Stages of emergency and disaster management
Prevention Preparedness Mitigation Response Recovery Reconstruction

20 Sustainability Generally applied to normal range of activities
Applies to structural and organization designs that promote efficient and effective operations with minimum use of resources Could be stretched to include activities outside the normal range => MITIGATION All too often overlooks disasters

21 Resiliency Ability of a structure, organization, or system to do at least ONE of the following: to avoid damage => PREVENTION to retain an acceptable but reduced level of functioning => MITIGATION to return to an acceptable level of functioning after a disaster or catastrophe => MITIGATION & RECOVERY

22 It all starts locally All disaster response starts locally, and the local flavor will persist no matter how much the response escalates to track the evolution of the incident. If the locality involves an airport, the airport’s preparedness can condition the nature and outcomes of the response.

23 Do you have to wait 72 hours for help?
Under the National Response Framework and prior doctrines, the expectation is that localities—including airports—will have to wait about 72 hours for outside (federal) aid.

24 Local Emergency Services Specialized Regional Response Assets
EDM time spectrum State Private Sector High DoD (Title 10) Federal Civilian Required Capabilities and Resources Interstate Compacts Specialized Federal Assets (LD/HD) Local Emergency Services Specialized Regional Response Assets Mutual Aid Agreements Low Pre-Event First 12 Hours 12-48 Hours 48-96 Hours 30 Days

25 Cutting the 72-hour wait Get airport designated as critical infrastructure/critical facilities list Smart plans and strategies Promoting self-help capabilities Developing special response and recovery capabilities Giving and receiving mutual help beyond mutual aid pacts – regional cooperation and coordination - DOGs

26 What’s a DOG Disaster Operations Group
SEADOG WESTDOG None yet in Midwest, New England, Middle Atlantic, Hawaii, and Pacific Associated with EMAC and state EMAC coordinators

27 Airport Response – Ivan 2005

28 Airport Response – Katrina 2005

29 Gulfport and Katrina “Our highway infrastructure had been destroyed, the Port had suffered catastrophic damages and the rail system was inoperable. Our airport was the primary source for receiving aid and materials. Without the airport’s quick turnaround, we would have been cut off from the world and the much needed assistance that we needed to survive.” Brent Warr, Mayor, City of Gulfport

30 Airport Response at Lake Charles – Rita 2005

31 Airport Response at Beaumont-Port Arthur – Rita 2005

32 Key concepts Airports are even more critical in disasters and catastrophes. Airports are critical infrastructure. Airports must be protected from inappropriate uses. Airport design (structural, organizational, policy, and defensive) should promote continuity of operations.

33 Telling quote “In a disaster, an airport can substitute for almost anything else, but nothing can substitute for an airport.” Walter White, MEM

34 Actions to protect airport COOP/COB
Structural Policy Organizational Procedural Defensive These are highly cross-connected.

35 Structural (Physical facilities)
Redundancy on site Back-up emergency operations center (EOC) Alternative sites Hardening Hardened communications and IT CBRNE prevention and mitigation Perimeter control Fuel system protection Air traffic control system protection Alternate utilities Interoperability standards

36 Special structural concerns
Design and construction to resist damage from multihazards Rapid post-incident evaluation Rapid post-incident repair Communications Alternative logistics, especially fuel and electricity Shelter-in-place capabilities Sustainment for essential employees Documentation as-built and modified

37 EOC Nerve center for disaster operations
Functions, space, connectivity, and people Supports and coordinates on-scene commanders operating under NIMS/ICS doctrines Can play role in all phases of emergency and disaster management Typically present at airports and at all levels of government and in corporations May go by other names but functions are the same MAC = multiagency coordination entity, sort of a super-EOC

38 Policy Subordination of airport asset to local, regional, or national incident management systems CONTROVERSIAL COOP/COB paramount strategic objective Pre-planned responses to strategic threats Pre-arrangements with agencies and surrounding business community to help ensure COOP Pro-mitigation orientation Laws controlling demonstrations and trespass Proactive policing policies Funding of preparedness and mitigation measures

39 Organizational Full NIMS/ICS implementation
Joint training, drilling, and exercising Within airport With surrounding agencies With DOD and other federal agencies Avoidance of insurance blackballing Worker protection Worker morale Internal security Standards Backup organizational units, especially EOC

40 Operational Preparedness Alternative modes of transport
Internal security Interoperability Standards Pre-siting Staging Pull, not push: hold logistics at intermediate airports rather than jamming up airport(s) in the middle of the disaster Off-site logistic support and storage Avoidance of non-essential uses Training, drilling, and exercising Standards – national and international

41 Access and credentialing
Access to airfield by mutual aid and other outside responders is a difficult issue. Credentialing of responders for on-airport action is needed. Flexibility is needed for extreme cases.

42 Defensive Intelligence Counterterrorism Active defense Passive defense
SAM exclusion Flight paths Minimize target value Time flexibility

43 Simultaneous threats Antagonists could possibly apply terrorism, war, or violent acts to take advantage of disruption due to natural disaster, accident, or pandemic.

44 Distant catastrophes Airports may be key assets in sending aid to distant disasters or catastrophes. Sending aid can stress airports and complicate normal COB/COOP. Distant catastrophes may send refugees and injured persons to an airport.

45 Newest challenge Airports, especially international gateway airports like ATL, BWI, PHL, and MSP, are being asked to establish facilities, plans and procedures for Emergency Repatriation Centers to receive and support U.S. citizens repatriated from overseas crises.

46 Conclusions Disaster management at airports involves airports internally and airports in a community context Coordination and cooperation among airports is needed Strong airport-emergency management agency cooperation and coordination is cost-effective mitigation against all hazards Preparedness against multihazards works for natural disasters, pandemics, and manmade threats Other components of aviation critical infrastructure have parallel concerns and needs for preparedness

47 Last word “In a disaster, an airport can substitute for almost anything else, but nothing can substitute for an airport.” But nothing matters unless the airport and its functions have been protected or restored.

48 Resources for further study
Building sound emergency management into airports. Smith, J. F., Waggoner, S. S., & Hall, G. (2007). IATC 2007 Proceedings, Memphis Airport as a model for disaster response. Smith, J. F., Waggoner, S. S., & Hall, G. (2007). Crisis Response Journal 3(3), Protecting airport functionality during disaster responses: Natural disasters, accidents, and pandemics. Smith, J. F., Waggoner, S. S., Rabjohn, A., & Bachar, A. (2007). J. Emergency Mgt. 5(6), Protecting airport functionality during disaster responses: Terrorism, war, civil war, and riots. Smith, J. F., Waggoner, S. S., Rabjohn, A., & Bachar, A. (2008a). J. Emergency Mgt., 6(3), Protecting airport functionality during disaster responses: Solutions. Smith, J. F., Waggoner, S. S., Rabjohn, A., & Bachar, A. (2008b). J. Emergency Mgt., 6(4), Maintaining airport continuity of business and operations during disaster response: the role of command and control relationships with emergency management agencies. Smith, J. F. (2008). J. Bus. Continuity & Emerg. Planning, 3(1).


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