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Animals With Backbones

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Presentation on theme: "Animals With Backbones"— Presentation transcript:

1 Animals With Backbones

2 Animals With Backbones
Animals with backbones are called vertebrates. Vertebrates include many different kinds of animals. They can be found just about everywhere – in oceans, rivers, forests, mountains, and deserts. Animals with backbones can be broken up into classes by characteristics. They are:

3 Bird Characteristics All birds are classified in the class aves.
Birds lay hard shelled eggs that hatch in their nest. There are about 9,000 types of birds. Birds are vertebrates that have wings and they are covered with feathers. No other animal has this feature. The bird’s skeleton is very light in weight. This helps them to fly. (Fossil evidence shows that birds may be a modern day relative of a dinosaur – the archaeopteryx. The archaeopteryx live over 160 million years ago, but had wings identical to modern day birds.) Birds range in size from as small as your finger or as large as a human. adapted from

4 Birds, continued Birds have beaks, but no teeth.
They are very social. One or both parents care for the helpless young. Types of feathers: Contour feathers – used for flight Down feathers – used for warmth Filoplumes – control movement of the contour feathers

5 Orders of Birds Orders of birds: Perching : tree dwellers
perching foot has 3 toes pointing forward and 1 toe backwards EX: cardinal, robin, bluebird, and swallows Non-perching land birds: feed on seeds and fruit. prefer to walk rather than fly EX: doves, pigeons, turkeys, and quail

6 Orders of Birds Water Birds: Swimming birds –
round, broad, straining beaks webbed feet migratory Wading birds – long-legged spearing types of beaks Flightless Birds: have lost the ability to fly 2 main groups – ostriches and penguins

7 Orders of Birds Birds of Prey: The most powerful group of birds
strong hooked beaks large feet with strong curving talons 2 toes face forward and 2 toes face backwards 2 groups – diurnal – hunt by day nocturnal – hunt by night

8 Reptile Characteristics
Class: Reptilia which means “creepers” Dinosaurs were giant reptiles and although they are extinct now, 4 of the 16 major groups of these giant reptiles have relatives today: Snakes and lizards Turtles and tortoises Crocodiles and alligators tuataras There are over 6,500 species

9 Reptile Characteristics
Bony skeleton Ectothermic Thick, dry, waterproof skin Use lungs to breathe oxygen Have a 3 or 4 chambered heart, allowing them to provide more oxygen to their body Amniotic egg – eggs have a leathery shell and a yolk to feed the embryo developing inside the egg Most, except snakes, have two sets of small legs

10 Snakes and Lizards Both: The largest and most varied group of reptiles
Live on every continent except Antarctica Do not have moveable eyelids or external ears Have teeth that grow out of their jawbone, similar scales, and smell by flicking tongues Lizards: Use tails to wrap around branches and can break them off to escape predators – they grow back. Snakes: “hear” by detecting movement in the ground

11 Crocodiles and Alligators
Both: Sharp teeth Heavy bodies Long snouts Large muscular tails Crocodiles have a narrow head with a triangular shaped snout. They are more aggressive than alligators. They have been known to attack animals as large as cattle. Alligators have a rounded snout and are one of the few reptiles that care for their young. Feed on fish, turtles, and water birds.

12 Turtles and Tortoises Move very slowly
The shell is made up of plates of bone connected to the ribs and backbone No teeth, but very powerful jaws Do not protect their young Turtles live in water and have thin, light shells that help them swim Tortoises live entirely on land and have thick, dome Shaped shells

13 Tuataras – “living fossils”
Oldest and smallest group of reptiles are the last surviving species of the primitive reptiles of The past They live on isolated islands off the coast of New Zealand There are strict laws protecting their habitats

14 Amphibian Characteristics
Class: Amphibia which means “double life” They live part of their life in water and part on land. Tadpoles have gills and live in water. Adults form lungs and may live on land. Most go through metamorphosis which means they go through multiple stages of development. Most have moist skins (not toads) and are sticky to the touch because of a mucus they make. Must return to water to mate and lay eggs. Divided into 3 orders based on body structure: Frogs and toads Salamanders, sirens, and newts The odd caecilians

15 Amphibian Characteristics
Like fish, they are bioindicators. Ectotherms: in cold weather, they become less active and bury themselves in mud or leaves until it becomes warm (hibernation) those that live in hot, dry climates hide in the ground when it is too hot (estivation) They may be adapted for life on land, they MUST have water for their skin and reproduction

16 Frogs and Toads The most abundant amphibians
May live on land, in water, or trees Live in diverse habitats Bulging eyes Nostrils on top of their head Frogs: more slender, active, smooth skin, long hind legs, and fully webbed feet Toads: fuller-bodied, less active, prefer land, dry bumpy skin, shorter legs, and little webbing on feet

17 Salamanders and Newts Long bodies Long tails Two pairs of short legs
Live on land and water Feed on worms, crustaceans, and insects Most live in North America newt salamander

18 Caecilians (little-known amphibians)
Long-bodied without limbs Almost tailless Smallest order of amphibians Live in tropics and are very common in parts of Africa, Asia, and Central and South America Ringed caecilian (Siphonops paulensis) Ichthyophis glutinosus

19 Fish Characteristics They are the largest group of vertebrates.
Many fish are covered with scales that protects them. Their scales grow with the fish. You can calculate the age of a fish by counting the growth rings that form as the scale expands. They have fins that help them to steer and balance in the water. Most fish float with the help of a special feature called a swim bladder. Their body temperatures vary in the water. They breathe through gills. adapted from

20 Bioindicators A bioindicator is an organism whose health reflects the health of the ecosystem. If the water is healthy, then there are plenty of healthy fish. So, if a source of water has lots of ill fish or is lacking fish altogether, that is an indication that there is something wrong with the water. Fish are a very important animal to man. Many people around the world depend on fish as their primary source of protein.

21 Class Agnatha – jawless fish
Scavengers and parasites. Oldest and simplest of the vertebrates. Round sucker shaped mouths and long tube-like bodies covered with slimy, scale-less skin. Lampreys and hagfish are the only two jawless fish.

22 Class Chondrichthyes – cartilaginous fish
Skeletons made of cartilage Hinged, moveable jaws with an endless supply of teeth Covered with tiny scales that feel like sandpaper Sharks, skates, and rays

23 Class Osteichthyes – Bony fish
The most numerous and varied of all the fish Skeletons made of bone and cartilage Have the lateral line system and swim bladder 3 groups: lungfish, lobe-finned, ray-finned

24 Mammal Characteristics
Have hair on their bodies at some point in their lives. Whiskers count as hair. Endothermic – warm-blooded Females produce milk to feed their young Most mammals give live birth to their offspring. More complex brain than other animals. Their teeth and digestive tracts are specialized to suit them depending on what they eat. adapted from

25 Monotremes-Egg laying mammals
Make up the smallest group of mammals Lay eggs with a leathery shell Live in Australia Best known – duck-billed platypus Spiny ant-eater is the only other monotreme

26 Marsupials – Pouched mammals
2nd largest group of mammals Live in Australia or adjoining islands – with one exception….the opossum Gives birth to a tiny immature offspring that must complete development in its mother’s pouch EX: Koala bear, kangaroo

27 Placental mammals 95 % of mammals fall into this category
The embryo stays inside the female’s body until it is fully formed Gestation (the time an embryo takes to develop) can range from 16 days such as hamsters up to 650 days for elephants

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