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Chapter 3.8 Mrs. Christman. Scientists classify animals based on cell structure, how cells are organized into tissues, how tissues are organized into.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 3.8 Mrs. Christman. Scientists classify animals based on cell structure, how cells are organized into tissues, how tissues are organized into."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 3.8 Mrs. Christman

2 Scientists classify animals based on cell structure, how cells are organized into tissues, how tissues are organized into organs, and how organs are organized into systems.

3 Vertebrates are animals that have backbones. The backbone helps an animal turn its body.

4 Section 30-1 Nonvertebrate chordates Fishes Amphibians Reptiles Birds Mammals Invertebrate ancestor Chordate Cladogram

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6 Agnatha (Jawless Fish) – Have mouths of soft tissue with no true teeth. Have no jaws or bones Skeletons are made of cartilage (not bone) These fish do not have a true backbone, but they do have a tough nerve cord that runs down their back. They look more like big worms than like fish Lampreys, Hagfish Lamprey Hayfish

7 Chondrichthyes – Have jaws Skeletons are made of cartilage (not bone) The cartilage running down their backs is made of a chain of smaller parts called vertebrae Have paired fins Sharks, sea rays Sea Ray Whale Shark - Chondrichthyes

8 Osteichthyes (bony fish)– Have bones instead of cartilage Have fins that look like fans with spokes in them Have a movable flap over their gills that allows them to breathe while staying still Unlike sharks, most bony fish have an organ called a swim bladder, or air sac, that allows them to hover at any depth Majority of fish fall in this group Carp, sea horse, perch, etc.

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10 Amphibian = double life Larvae (babies) live in water; adults live on land Most larvae are fishlike; adults are terrestrial carnivores Larvae respire through skin/gills; Adults use lungs Most adult amphibians have four legs and moist skin that is not covered with scales

11 Section 30-3 Adult Frog Young Frog Fertilized Eggs Tadpoles Frog eggs are laid in water and undergo external fertilization. Frog eggs are laid in water and undergo external fertilization. The eggs hatch into tadpoles a few days to several weeks later. Tadpoles gradually grow limbs, lose their tails and gills, and become meat-eaters as they develop into terrestrial adults. Tadpoles gradually grow limbs, lose their tails and gills, and become meat-eaters as they develop into terrestrial adults. The Life Cycle of a Frog

12 that allow for are that providethat allow are and have special adaptations such as larvæ they live in adults they live on Section 30-3 means as Efficient movement Breathing air Support and protection BonesLungsRibs Amphibians WaterLand Double life

13 Salamanders – Long bodies and tails Adults are carnivorous Usually live in moist woods Frogs and Toads – Lack tails Frogs have long legs and are usually tied to water Toads have shorter legs and not as closely tied to water Caecilians – Legless animals that burrow in moist soil Have fishlike scales

14 Spotted Salamander Poison Dart Frog Fire Bellied Toad Caecilian

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16 All reptiles have: Dry, scaly skin – helps prevent loss of body water in dry environments Leathery eggs Breathes through lungs Cold-blooded Nile Crocodile North American Alligator Coral Snake

17 Lizards and Snakes Have legs & clawed toes (lizards) external ears, moveable eyelids Highly evolved specialized forms (venom) Crocodiles and Alligators Long, typically broad snout and squat appearance All are carnivorous Protective of young; carry hatchlings in their mouth Live in tropics and subtropics Alligators live in freshwater Crocodiles live in fresh or saltwater

18 Turtles and Tortoises – All are shelled Turtles are aquatic; tortoises are terrestrial Tuatara – Primitive reptiles found on small, remote islands Sea Turtle Galapagos Tortoise Tuatara

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20 Nearly 10,000 modern bird species Birds are closely related to reptiles (scales on legs) Have feathers, two legs used for walking or perching, and forelimbs modified into wings Feathers separate birds from all other animal species Feathers provide insulation for warmth; can generate on body heat Beak/Bills adapted to type of food they eat Highly efficient respiratory system; lungs only exposed to oxygen rich air Lay eggs

21 Section 31-2 which arethat alsothat powerthat providethat ensure have the following adaptations to flight Birds Homologous to front limbs in other vertebrates Provide warmth Upward and downward wing strokes One-way flow of O 2 -rich air O 2 distribution to body tissues WingsFeathers Strong chest muscles Efficient respiratory system Efficient circulatory system

22 Purple Finch Red-Tailed Hawk Stork Emu

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24 Basic characteristics Hair Feed milk to their young Have lungs to breathe air Warm blooded– can generate own body heat Give birth to babies


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