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Animal Kingdom Vertebrates

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Presentation on theme: "Animal Kingdom Vertebrates"— Presentation transcript:

1 Animal Kingdom Vertebrates
Chapter 3.8 Mrs. Christman

2 What characteristics do scientists use to classify animals?
Scientists classify animals based on cell structure, how cells are organized into tissues, how tissues are organized into organs, and how organs are organized into systems.

3 What are Vertebrates? Vertebrates are animals that have backbones. The backbone helps an animal turn its body.

4 Chordate Cladogram Section 30-1 Mammals Birds Reptiles Amphibians
Fishes Nonvertebrate chordates Invertebrate ancestor

5 Fish – Basic Facts

6 Groups of Fish Agnatha (Jawless Fish) –
Have mouths of soft tissue with no true teeth. Have no jaws or bones Skeletons are made of cartilage (not bone) These fish do not have a true backbone, but they do have a tough nerve cord that runs down their back. They look more like big worms than like fish Lampreys, Hagfish Lamprey Hayfish

7 Groups of Fish Chondrichthyes – Have jaws
Sea Ray Chondrichthyes – Have jaws Skeletons are made of cartilage (not bone) The cartilage running down their backs is made of a chain of smaller parts called vertebrae Have paired fins Sharks, sea rays Whale Shark - Chondrichthyes

8 Groups of Fish Osteichthyes (bony fish)–
Have bones instead of cartilage Have fins that look like fans with spokes in them Have a movable flap over their gills that allows them to breathe while staying still Unlike sharks, most bony fish have an organ called a swim bladder, or air sac, that allows them to hover at any depth Majority of fish fall in this group Carp, sea horse, perch, etc.


10 Amphibians – Basic Facts
Amphibian = “double life” Larvae (babies) live in water; adults live on land Most larvae are fishlike; adults are terrestrial carnivores Larvae respire through skin/gills; Adults use lungs Most adult amphibians have four legs and moist skin that is not covered with scales

11 The Life Cycle of a Frog Adult Frog Fertilized Eggs
Section 30-3 Adult Frog Fertilized Eggs Frog eggs are laid in water and undergo external fertilization. The eggs hatch into tadpoles a few days to several weeks later. Young Frog Tadpoles gradually grow limbs, lose their tails and gills, and become meat-eaters as they develop into terrestrial adults. Tadpoles

12 and have special adaptations such as
Amphibians Section 30-3 means “Double life” as larvæ they live in adults they live on Water Land and have special adaptations such as Bones Lungs Ribs are that allow for that allow that provide Efficient movement Breathing air Support and protection are

13 Groups of Amphibians Salamanders – Long bodies and tails
Adults are carnivorous Usually live in moist woods Frogs and Toads – Lack tails Frogs have long legs and are usually tied to water Toads have shorter legs and not as closely tied to water Caecilians – Legless animals that burrow in moist soil Have fishlike scales

14 Spotted Salamander Poison Dart Frog Fire Bellied Toad Caecilian


16 Reptiles – Basic Facts All reptiles have:
Dry, scaly skin – helps prevent loss of body water in dry environments Leathery eggs Breathes through lungs Cold-blooded North American Alligator Nile Crocodile Coral Snake

17 Groups of Reptiles Lizards and Snakes
Have legs & clawed toes (lizards) external ears, moveable eyelids Highly evolved specialized forms (venom) Crocodiles and Alligators Long, typically broad snout and squat appearance All are carnivorous Protective of young; carry hatchlings in their mouth Live in tropics and subtropics Alligators live in freshwater Crocodiles live in fresh or saltwater

18 Groups of Reptiles (con.)
Turtles and Tortoises – All are shelled Turtles are aquatic; tortoises are terrestrial Tuatara – Primitive reptiles found on small, remote islands Galapagos Tortoise Sea Turtle Tuatara


20 Birds – Basic Facts Nearly 10,000 modern bird species
Birds are closely related to reptiles (scales on legs) Have feathers, two legs used for walking or perching, and forelimbs modified into wings Feathers separate birds from all other animal species Feathers provide insulation for warmth; can generate on body heat Beak/Bills adapted to type of food they eat Highly efficient respiratory system; lungs only exposed to oxygen rich air Lay eggs

21 have the following adaptations to flight
Section 31-2 Birds have the following adaptations to flight Wings Feathers Strong chest muscles Efficient respiratory system Efficient circulatory system which are that also that power that provide that ensure Homologous to front limbs in other vertebrates Provide warmth Upward and downward wing strokes One-way flow of O2-rich air O2 distribution to body tissues

22 Purple Finch Stork Red-Tailed Hawk Emu


24 Mammals – Basic Facts Basic characteristics Hair
Feed milk to their young Have lungs to breathe air Warm blooded– can generate own body heat Give birth to babies

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