Presentation on theme: "Teeth, tags, and a TSE SUSAN SCHOENIAN Sheep & Goat Specialist Western Maryland Research & Education Center University of Maryland Extension www.sheepandgoat.com."— Presentation transcript:
1Teeth, tags, and a TSESUSAN SCHOENIAN Sheep & Goat Specialist Western Maryland Research & Education Center University of Maryland Extension (301) x343
2Today’s topics Teeth Tags TSE Mouthing sheep and goats to estimate age Mouthing sheep and goats to determine soundnessTagsMethods of identifying sheep and goatsEar tagging basicsTSEScrapie in sheep and goatsTagging requirements
3Mature sheep and goats have 32 teeth Lambs and kids have 20 temporary teeth Dental pad no teethMolars Back teethIncisors (front teeth)Picture source: Merck Veterinary Manual, 8th edition
4Mouthing sheep and goats to estimate age You can estimate the approximate age of sheep and goats by determining the age at which the milk teeth are replaced by permanent incisors.Age varies by individual animal, breed, environment, and nutrition.< 11-22-33-4> 4OldSource for illustrations: Adapted from Vatta et al. (2005) Goatkeepers' Veterinary Manual.
5Lamb – less than 1 year of age Baby teethMilk teethAll temporary
18How to reduce ear tag infections Tag young animalsTag clean, dry earsTag when humidity is low.Use smaller tagAvoid metal tagsPunch a hole in the ear before inserting tag
19How to reduce ear tag infections Apply lubricating antiseptic to male and female parts of tagDip in iodineSoak ear tags in alcohol or another disinfectant before inserting.Cut out infected tags
20How to reduce tag losses Insert tag 1 to 2 inches from skullThicker part of earLess snaggingPut female part of tag on inside of earAvoid large veins
21What to do if animal loses a tag 4-H tagContact 4-H officeScrapie IDPut in a new scrapie tagOwn flock/herdFlock/herd of originWrite down old number and new numberRegistration tagReplace with a tag with the same number
22[TSE] Scrapie Disease of sheep and goats. Affects central nervous system.Animals over 18 months of ageAlways fatal.Member of a family of diseases called transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSEs).Other TSEsMad cow diseaseChronic wasting diseaseCreutzfeldt-Jakob’s disease
23How does a sheep or goat get scrapie? Direct contact with an infected sheep or goat.Direct contact with infected placenta.Environmental contamination (?)
24Can all sheep and goats get scrapie? Affects mostly blackface and speckled-faced sheep.Few cases in goats in U.S.A sheep’s genetics determines if it will get scrapie if it is exposed.R gene - resistanceQ gene - susceptibilityThey are still looking for resistant genotypes in goats.
25-- MANDATORY -- Tagging requirement for scrapie program Tag all sheep and goats when they leave your property.Sell to neighborGo to weigh-in and taggingGo to fairGo to sale barnTag should be applied at the farm where the goat or sheep was born.Premise IDIndividual animal IDWhy? To trace back infected animals to their farm of origin and find other animals that might have been exposed.
26Tattoo instead of ear tag A flock ID and individual animal number can take the place of an ear tag.A registration tattoo may also take the place of a tattoo if the animal accompanied by its registration paper.
27What if . . . ? The sheep or goat you buy doesn’t have a scrapie tag? The seller is required to tag the animal.If the seller doesn’t provide a tag, tag the animal with another scrapie tag and record the seller’s name and address so you can prove the animal wasn’t born on your farm.The sheep or goat loses its scrapie tag?Put in another tag and record both tag numbers (lost and new).
28How to get FREE scrapie tags Contact John T. Swann at (410) orHe will assign a Flock ID and order your free ear tags and pliers to apply them.