2 Learning Objectives Participants will: Learn about Blood Pathogens Learn about the OSHA Exposure Control PlanLearn how and when to use Personal Protective EquipmentLearn procedures for obtaining Hepatitis B vaccine
3 What is OSHA?O OCCUPATIONAL S SAFETY H HEALTH A ADMINISTRATION
4 OSHA RegulationsKenCrest has adopted procedures, known as “Universal Precautions”, to protect all staff and clients from exposure to diseases which are spread by contact with human blood or other potentially infectious material. In accordance with the OSHA Bloodborne Pathogens Standard 29 CFR , KenCrest has an Exposure Control Plan in place in the event of an exposure to blood borne pathogens. The Exposure Control plan can be viewed in it’s entirety at each of the site offices. Essential components of the plan will be reviewed in this training module.
5 Universal Precautions Universal precautions means that blood and certain body fluids of all persons are thought of as possibly infected and that precautions are taken “universally” in all potential exposure situations, whether or not the persons involved are known to be infected.These procedures are written in accordance with guidelines established by the Centers for Disease Control (CDC) and the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) and apply to all personnel.
6 How Are Germs Transmitted? Five Modes: Airborne (Legionnaires Disease)Droplets (Cold, Flu, TB)Blood And Bodily Fluids (Std’s, HBV, HIV)Skin To Skin (Pink Eye, Ringworm)Fecal/Oral (Hepatitis A, Food Poisoning)
7 What Are Categories Of Germs? Bacteria (Strep, Staph, Ecoli)Fungus (Ringworm, Thrush, Yeast, Mold)Viruses (Common Cold, HBV, HIV)Parasites (Malaria, Fleas, Ticks, Lice)
8 What are links in the chain of infection? Infectious agent – germs/microbe that causes diseaseReservoir – carrier or hostPortal of exit – the germ/microbe leaves the carrier or hostMode of transmission – means of traveling (i.e. on our hands)Portal of entry – (i.e. passed by hands)Susceptible host – person with low resistance
9 What are Bloodborne Pathogens ? There are three bloodborne pathogens that may pose a risk.Hepatitis BHepatitis CHIV
10 Hepatitis B VirusThe hepatitis B virus, or HBV, can cause inflammation of the liver. Approximately 10 percent of those infected develop chronic infections which can lead to chronic liver disease, cancer or death. More than 5,000 people die annually from HBV-related chronic liver disease.Symptoms may include jaundice, fatigue, abdominal pain, loss of appetite, and occasional nausea or vomiting.Half of those infected show no symptoms. Hepatitis B is the most easily transmitted blood borne pathogen, and the only way to confirm it is by blood test. Fortunately, there is an effective vaccine.
11 Hepatitis C VirusHepatitis C virus, or HCV, also causes viral liver infection with symptoms similar to HBV. Every year, approximately 10,000 people die from HCV-related chronic liver disease – twice the number from hepatitis B.There are some important differences between the two pathogens, however:Nearly 85 percent are chronically infectedThree quarters of those infected show no symptomsWhile there is no vaccine for HCV, there are anti-viral drugs that are effective for some who have already contracted the disease.
12 Human Immunodeficiency Virus Human Immunodeficiency Virus, or HIV, attacks the immune system, eventually destroying the body’s ability to fight infection. Approximately 800,000 to 900,00 people in the United States are HIV-positive. Many of them appear healthy, and lead normal lives for years.HIV can eventually lead to AIDS, but the number of new cases is falling because of improved treatments. There is no vaccine for HIV and no cure for AIDS.*
13 Body Fluids which REQUIRE Universal Precautions: BloodAny body fluid containing visible bloodWound secretionsVaginal secretions and semen
14 Body Fluids which DO NOT require Universal Pre-Cautions UrineFeces or stool (with no visible blood)Saliva (with no visible blood)Sputum/mucous (with no visible blood)Vomits (with no visible blood)SweatTears
15 Potential InfectionsSome of these body fluids and excretions present a potential source for other types of infections, not carried by blood, and the use of good hand washing is warranted; however protective equipment would not be required, and contact would NOT be reviewed as an exposure incident.
16 Procedure Related to Direct Care Personal Protective equipment (PPE) is used anytime exposure to blood or potentially infected body fluids is anticipated.The type of protective barrier used must be appropriate for the individual situation.
17 Exam GlovesExam gloves made of disposable latex or vinyl, will be worn routinely by staff when performing tasks which involve handling blood or body fluids.Gloves must be removed or discarded after each use, taking care to “peel them down” by turning them inside out to prevent contact with the contaminated outer surface.Hands must be washed after removal of gloves
18 Personal Protective Equipment Masks or Face Shields – worn when splashes or droplets of potentially infectious materials pose a hazard through mucous membranes of eyes, mouth, or nose.Gowns - disposable gowns or aprons may be worn to protect clothing from becoming soiled on occasions when any splattering of blood or bloody fluids is possible.
19 Open Wounds or CutsAny open cuts, scratches or sores must be kept covered. (unless otherwise specified by a doctor) and protected from any others coming in contact with the open areaStaff persons with cuts or skin irritations on their hands are to keep open areas covered and wear protected gloves when coming in contact with any body fluids
20 Hand washingIs the single most effective means of preventing the transmission of disease and should be done:At the start of the day and when soiledBefore contact with foodAfter using toilet facilities personally or assisting some one with toiletingAfter contact with anything that has been soiled with blood, urine, feces, mucous or vomit (even if gloves were worn during exposure)After handling or feeding petsAfter work or playing outdoors
21 Hand Washing Procedure Best to use liquid soapRub hands together vigorously under running waterUse towel to turn off faucet instead of using your clean handsUse moisturizing lotion to prevent dryness, cuts or cracks on skin surface
22 Management of Exposure Incidents An exposure incident involves blood or other potentially infected material coming in physical contact with another person through a cut, puncture, or other non-intact skin, or by means of a splash to the eyes, mouth, or other mucous membraneAfter exposure incident, immediately wash hands and other skin surfaces that become contaminated with blood or other potentially infected body fluids. Mucous membrane or eye areas must be flushed repeatedly with clear water after an exposure. Allowing puncture wounds (such as bites or needle sticks) to bleed for a short period of time prior to washing helps to clean the wound out from the inside.
23 Management of Exposure Incidents Any exposure incident must be reported to a supervisor, and an incident report must be filed right away, prior to the end of the shift. Any employees who incur an exposure incident will be offered post exposure evaluations and follow-up in accordance with OSHA standard.Circumstances surrounding the exposure incident must be evaluated to try and find ways to prevent a similar situation from occurring again.
24 What to do if an Exposure Incident occurs… Cleanse the area of exposure with warm, soapy water. If the incident involves the eyes, flush them with warm water for 10 minutes.Report the incident to your supervisor.Complete the necessary paperwork regarding the exposure incident.
25 Hepatitis B VaccineAll employees who have been identified as having exposure to blood or other potentially infectious materials will be offered the Hepatitis B vaccine at not cost to the employeeThe vaccine will be offered within 10 workings days of their initial assignment to workSome employees may have had the vaccine and wish to submit to antibody testing which shows the employee to have sufficient immunityEmployees who initially decline the Hepatitis B vaccine will sign a waiverEmployees can decline the Hepatitis B vaccine can opt to have the vaccine later
26 To Complete This Training, Employees Must . . . Meet with your immediate supervisor to . . .Learn where the exposure control plan is kept at your siteLearn where all PPE equipment is kept at your worksiteReview the PPE equipment to have on hand during home visits.Discuss any concerns you may have regarding universal precautions.Review whether or not you will receive the Hepatitis B Vaccine.Click the links below to download the following handouts:OSHA Bloodborne Pathogen ChecklistOSHA Bloodborne Pathogen Training Sign Off Sheet
27 Completion Documentation Instructions Please click here to download the completion documents for this training module; the instructions are as follows:Download and print the file.Complete the OSHA Quiz and return to your program coordinator.Fill in the Sign In Sheet and return to your program coordinator for signature.Add your name to the Certificate of Completion and ask your program coordinator to sign, verifying your completion of the training module. Keep the original certificate for your records for tracking of your annual 24 hours of mandated training.Thank you for completing this online training module.