Presentation on theme: "Negation --how do we use it? Section 1 From the Affirmation to the Negation Like affirmation, English negation largely depend on the use of the helping."— Presentation transcript:
Negation --how do we use it?
Section 1 From the Affirmation to the Negation Like affirmation, English negation largely depend on the use of the helping verb.do, be, can, shall, may, etc. with the adverb not. Chinese students should learn from the very beginning to use this form, instead of saying He not knows(x), or He not comes(x). AFFIRMATION NETATION I come (go, play). I do not come (go, play). I came (went, played). I did not come (go, play). He comes (goes, plays). He does not come (go, play).
Can not is the emphatic form of cannot. The changes came and did come, comes and does come occur also in the question. PRESENT PAST (A) He comes. (A) He came. (B) Does he come? (B) Did he come? (C) He does not come. (C) He did not come.
Exercise 1: Practice the following orally. The first one is already done for you. 1. He knows that I am here. –He doesnt know that I am here. –Does he know that I am here? 2. They saw me on Nanking Road. 3. He heard the shot. 4. You spoke to that fellow on the way. 5. They all ran away when the police came. 6. The teacher saw me, but did not see him.
vSection 2 No!!!! We generally say There is no one, but There is not any one, and I have no money, but I cannot pay. adjective adverbNo is thus used as an adjective before noun, and not is used as an adverb. When there is a noun, it is better to use no. The form with no is often more emphatic. Examples: 1. The pen is no good. 2. Thats no fun. 3. This camera is no use. 4. It is no use talking.
Exercise 2: Use no in the following sentences and change them in any way you like-- 1. I have not received any answer from him. 2. I have not seen any Chinese in this city. 3. He doesnt have money to pay me. 4. I tell you I do not have any lover. 5. This fountain pen cannot be of any use to me.
¶ Section 3 Few, a Few, Little, a Little In English, the meaning of few and little is negative, while that of a few and a little is affirmative. When you come to borrow money from me, and I say I have little money, that means I am not going to lend it to you. But when I say Yes, I have a little, this means I am willing to lend you what little I have. Study the following-- 1. You have little time left. Youd better hurry up. 2. I have a little time. What can I do for you? 3. She knows little, but she talks a whole lot.
¶ Section 4 No in Negative Answers It is a peculiar English habit that, when the answer itself is negative, we must use no in the beginning, even when in Chinese yes would be the proper word to use. There are two examples: 1. Q: Isnt he your brother? A: Yes, he is. / No, he is not. 2. Q: Havent you got your book? A: Yes, Ive got it. / No, I havent.