2Top 25 Products (Units/Yr) 1056GP pHTUpH4002285081499PERpHEX1066Oxymitter/688856Hx pH1403200HP150Systems22210571853800TF396328A381+410VP6081Emerson Process Management Company Confidential
3Free chlorine: Model FCL chlorine sensorpH sensorTwo versionsFCL-01 chlorine onlyFCL-02 chlorine with pH correctionConstant head flow controller--no valves or pressure regulators to worry aboutMinimum flow about 3 gphEverything mounted on a back plateSensor cables pre-wired to the analyzerdraininletflow controller
4FCLi-01 VP connector 498CL-01 sensor 1056 analyzer constant head flow controllercable pre-wired to analyzerinletback platedrain
6monochloramine sensor Model MCLmonochloramine sensorinletdrainflow controllerConstant head flow con-troller--no valves or pressure regulators needed.Minimum flow:3 gphLinear range: ppmLinearity: 2% (typical)Electrolyte life: about three months
7Clarity II Turbidimeter Clarity II Turbidimeter product position:Design supports accurate low-NTU for DW plantsKey regulatory measurement for DW plantsYour comments and suggestions are welcome.them to
8Turbidity Definition - What is it? Turbidity is the “optical property that causes light to be scattered and absorbed rather than transmitted in straight lines through the sample.”Ref: Standard Methods for Examination of Water and WastewaterTurbidity is the clarity of the water sample.INTRODUCTIONTurbidity DefinitionA Turbidity meter measures the ability of suspended or undissolved particles to scatter light.As the number of particles in a sample increase, more light gets scattered and the turbidity value goes up.
9Turbidity Theory - Basic Nephelometer DetectorTransmitted LightLight SourceScattered Light at 90°Light Scattered by ParticlesTHEORYDuring the early 1900’s, the first instrument to make a turbidity measurement was referred to as the Jack Candle Turbidimeter, and consisted of a candle and a glass tube calibrated to equivalent ppm suspended silica turbidity.In the 1930’s, a white light bulb and a photo detector was used to monitor the intensity of light scattered at 90°.Turbidity is the measure of the amount of light scattered by particles in a sample. A beam of light passes through a sample containing suspended particles. The particles interact with the light and scatter the light. A detector measures the intensity of the scattered light.Turbidity is the measure of the amount of light scattered by particles in a sample. A beam of light passes through a sample containing suspended particles. The particles interact with the light and scatter the light. A detector at 90° measures the intensity of the scattered light.
10Clarity II Online Turbidimeter Complete SystemSingle or Dual Sensor InputMolded Debubbler/Measuring ChamberUSEPA Method or ISO Method ISO 7027Resolution NTUIdeal for Low Level Turbidity for DW Plant NeedsFull Featured Analyzer with Seven LanguagesNEMA 4X (IP65) AnalyzerTwo 4-20 mA Outputs4 programmable Alarms (-02 and -03 power supplies)Suitable for final treated Wastewater Discharge and Industrial Process Water ApplicationsPRODUCTThe Clarity II Turbidimeter is a complete system for measuring turbidity of water. The system consists of:The Analyzer Model T1055One or two sensors with debubbler/measuring chamber and cable assemblyThere is also an option to mount the above on an ABS plate.The Turbidity Analyzer Model T1055 has many of the same features as the Analyzer Model This will allow the plant to make all the liquid analytical measurements with the common operation of the Solu Comp II Analyzer Model 1055 platform.
11Clarity II Online Turbidimeter Clarity II InstallationAnalyzer:Surface or panel mount – one enclosurePolycarbonate enclosure – UV resistantModular signal boardsEasy wiring, removable connectorsAC switching or 24VDC power supplyTwo 4-20mA current outputsSensor:No wiring of sensor leadsSensor cable is pre-terminated with connectorSensor connector is NEMAPRODUCTThe Clarity II Turbidimeter is a complete system for measuring turbidity of water. The system consists of:The Analyzer Model T1055One or two sensors with debubbler/measuring chamber and cable assemblyThere is also an option to mount the above on an ABS plate.The Turbidity Analyzer Model T1055 has many of the same features as the Analyzer Model This will allow the plant to make all the liquid analytical measurements with the common operation of the Solu Comp II Analyzer Model 1055 platform.
12Why Clarity II Turbidimeter? Feature and Performance Clarity II Hach 1720EFormazin standard for cal 500 ml max 1,000 mlSingle point calibration Yes No, two points requiredDebubbling method Two stage Open to atmosphereTurbidity and calculated TSS Yes No, Turbidity onlyUser defined default screens Yes NoCleaning measuring chamber Easy Convoluted debubblerModular measurement boards Yes Digital interface3-year warranty on 1056 Yes No2-year warranty on Sensor Yes NoTEST RESULTS
13Wet Chemistry Analyzers The series CFA 3000 wet chemical analyzers are intended primarily for use in steam electric power plants, where they can be used to measure silica, phosphate, hydrazine, and sodium. This presentation covers…The basic water-steam cycle in a typical power plant.The points in the plant where silica, phosphate, hydrazine, and sodium are measured.Why the determination of silica, phosphate, hydrazine, and sodium is important to the plant operators.
14Where is the WetChem used? boilersuperheated steamturbogeneratorcondensermakeup waterfeedwater heater trainphosphate and silicacooling watersilicahydrazine and sodiumdeaeraterThe slide shows the points in a drum-type plant where silica, phosphate, and hydrazine are typically measured.Silica is measured in two places: the final effluent from the makeup water system and the boiler water.Phosphate is measured in the boiler water only.Hydrazine is measured in the condensate system, downstream from the chemi-cal injection point.Sodium is not typically measured in a drum-type plant.
15Where is the WetChem used? turbogeneratorsupercritical steamexhaust steamdeaeratersteam generatorcondensercooling waterThe slide shows the points in a supercritical plant where silica, sodium, and hydrazine are typically measured.Silica is measured in the final effluent from the makeup water system.Sodium is measured in the outlet from the condensate polisher. Typically, a polisher system consists of two or three polishers operated in parallel. Common practice is to measure sodium in each polisher effluent and in the combined polisher effluent.Hydrazine is rarely used in once-through plants, but if it is used, it is measured in the condensate system, downstream from the polisher and the chemical injection point.Phosphate is never used (or measured) in a once-through unit.makeup watershell and tube heatercondensate polisherhydrazinesodiumsilica
16Where is the WetChem used? IP steamHP steamSteamturbineDeaeraterHRSGGeneratorExhaust gasHPIPLPCondensersilicaGeneratorDemineralizerGas turbineHotwellHRSGHP: phosphate and silicaIP and LP: phosphatehydrazineDI water tank
17Why measure silica?DemineralizerRaw waterPurified waterConductivity measures how well ionic contaminants are being removed.Contains mostly ionized dissolved solids, like sodium chloride. Also contains silica, which is not ionized.Silica is found in all natural waters. It is a scale-forming contaminant and must be removed before the water is suitable for use in a steam power plant. Silica is usually removed by ion exchange or by electrodeionization. Often, reverse os-mosis is used upstream of the ion exchanger or electrodeionization unit.Unlike most dissolved solids found in natural waters, silica is poorly ionized. For this reason, conductivity cannot be used to monitor how well the demineralizer is removing silica. Instead, silica must be measured directly. Most steam plants permit no more than 10 ppb (parts per billion) silica in the makeup water and boiler feedwater.Silica analyzer measures how well silica is being removed.
18Why measure silica (cont’d)? boilerwatersilica vaporizessilica accumulates in the boilersteam to turbineturbinegeneratorsteamSilica drops out of the steam and plates out on the turbine blades.steam drumSilica is also measured in the boiler water. As water becomes steam in the boiler, trace contaminants, silica among them, accumulate and concentrate in the boiler water. The contaminants come primarily from condenser tube leaks that allow cooling water to enter the system. The high temperature in the boiler causes a portion of the silica in the boiler water to volatilize. The vaporized silica carries over with the steam and enters the turbine. Small quantities of vaporized silica pass through the turbine without causing damage. However, if too much silica is present, it comes out of vaporous solution and plates out on the turbine blades. Even light accumulations of silica can greatly reduce turbine efficiency.Because the concentration of silica in the steam is proportional to its concen-tration in the boiler water, plant operators control silica in the steam by measur-ing its concentration in the boiler and blowing down the boiler if the concentra-tion gets too high.The amount of silica allowed in the boiler water is a function of drum pressure. The higher the boiler pressure, the less silica can be tolerated. Typical silica levels in boiler water range from a few hundred ppb to ten or twenty ppm.
19Phosphate in the boiler water controls pH and reduces corrosion. Why measure phosphate?boilersuperheated steamturbogeneratorcondensercooling waterPhosphate in the boiler water controls pH and reduces corrosion.Acid forming contaminants from cooling water leakage accumulate in the boiler.deaeraterPhosphate is added to boiler water to control pH and to provide buffering if acid-forming contaminants from a condenser tube leak enter the system.Boiler water chemistry is complex. Careful control of phosphate levels is necessary, lest the treatment chemical do more damage than not treating at all.Phosphate is injected directly into the boiler water. Normal treatment levels range from a few tenths of a ppm to 10 ppm.
20The polisher blocks corrosive contaminants. Why measure sodium?turbogeneratorsupercritical steamexhaust steamdeaeratersteam generatorcooling watercondensate polishercondenserIn any steam power plant, corrosive and scale forming contaminants are constantly entering the water-steam cycle. Poor quality makeup water, cooling water leaks into the condenser, and air in-leakage at the condenser and low pressure turbine are the primary sources of contamination.In a drum-type unit, the contaminants accumulate in the boiler water, and by and large, that is where they remain. Although vaporization of contaminants and boiler water carryover allow contaminants to enter the steam, good chemical control in the boiler water keeps this threat to steam purity under control.In a once-through steam generator there is no water-steam separation. All the contaminants that enter the steam generator with the feedwater are carried with the steam into the turbine. The purpose of the condensate polisher is to remove contamination before it reaches the steam generator.Although conductivity and cation conductivity give a useful (and inexpensive) picture of polisher performance, many plant operators also monitor sodium. Sodium is ubiquitous and even small produce severe corrosion in the turbine. Measuring sodium directly provides a sensitive and direct measurement of a harmful corrodent. Measuring sodium also helps the operators distinguish between cation conductivity caused by severe corrodents like chloride and sulfate and less dangerous contaminants like carbon dioxide and weak organic acids. The maximum sodium concentration allowed in the polisher effluent (and, therefore, the steam) is 2 ppb.The polisher blocks corrosive contaminants.
21WetChem Colorimetric analyzers Silica Phosphate Hydrazine ISE (ion specific electrode analyzer)Sodium
22How does the Colorimetric Analyzer work? add reagentscapture samplewait for complete color formationmeasure absorbanceLEDdetectorThe CFA 3000 instruments are colorimetric wet chemical analyzers.In colorimetry a sample is treated with one or more chemical reagents that react with the substance to be determined to produce a color. For example, in the measurement of silica the reagents react with silica to produce a blue color. The intensity, or darkness, of the blue is proportional to the amount of silica. The darker the blue, the more silica in the sample.Color intensity is measured by passing light from an LED through the sample and measuring how much light is absorbed. The analyzer converts the result into a concentration reading using a previously determined calibration factor.The measurement is entirely automatic. The CFA 3000 captures the sample, adds reagents, measures the absorbance, and converts the results into a ppm or ppb reading. The user does little more than replace reagents every three months.The CFA 3000 analyzers are batch analyzers. They are not continuous. The sample update rate ranges from every 12 minutes to every 20 minutes, depend-ing on what is being measured.
23How is the WetChem calibrated? BLANKhydrazine, ppbabsorbanceblankstandardsampleCALIBRATION CURVESTANDARDThe slide shows the steps in the calibration of a CFA 3018 hydrazine analyzer. All CFA 3000 instruments require a two-point calibration. The calibration is en-tirely automatic and is repeated at three-day intervals.In the first step, a volume of blank water is treated with the color development reagents and the absorbance is measured. Because the blank water contains no hydrazine, any color in the blank is caused by the color of the reagents them-selves or, which is very unlikely, by trace amounts of hydrazine in the reagents.Next, a volume of standard having a known concentration of hydrazine is treated with the reagents. The reagents react with hydrazine to produce a yellow color, and the analyzer measures the absorbance.Absorbance is directly proportional to concentration. The two data points (blank and standard) establish the calibration line. The analyzer automatically calcu-lates the slope. The slope, or calibration factor, is then used to convert sample absorbance into a ppb hydrazine value. The equation gives the details of the calculation..ppb = abs sample – abs blankslope
24ISE (Sodium) Analyzer pH glass electrode mV is proportional to -log ([H+] + a[Na+])Typically, a is small, so unless [Na+] is very large, there is no error.Na glass electrodemV is proportional to -log ([Na+] + b[H+])Sodium analyzers use a glass electrode, similar to a pH glass electrode, to measure sodium.As the slide shows a pH glass electrode is sensitive to both hydrogen and sodium ions. In a pH electrode, the glass is formulated to make the response to sodium negligible. However, as the equation shows, if the hydrogen ion concentration is low enough (i.e., if the pH is high enough), the response to sodium becomes significant, and an error, called the sodium error, results.Sodium glass electrodes are formulated to have high sodium errors. However, as the equation shows, a sodium electrode still maintains some response to hydrogen ions. To ensure the electrode responds only to sodium, the pH of the sample must be made alkaline. The pH needed depends on the desired measurement range for sodium. The lower the measurement range, the higher is the required pH.Sodium glass electrodes are often called sodium ion specific electrodes or sodium ISEs.For the electrode to respond properly to sodium, the H+ concentration must be low enough, i.e. pH high enough, for the second term to be negligible.
25How is the ISE (Sodium) Analyzer Calibrated? Analyzer response is directly proportional to log Na.Standardization is a two point calibration using 10 ppb and 100 ppb standards.mV100 ppbThe sodium analyzer, like the colorimetric analyzers, requires calibration.The sodium analyzer is calibrated using a low (10 ppb) and high (100 ppb) standard. The calibration is automatic. The analyzer measures the voltage when the pH-adjusted low and high standards are present. The two points determine a straight line, and the microprocessor calculates the slope and intercept.The response of the sodium ISE to changes in sodium ion concentration is similar to the response of a glass electrode to changes in hydrogen ion concentration. The slope of the electrode is about 59 mV/decade at 25 C. In other words, a tenfold change in concentration produces a voltage change of 59 mV. The slope and offset also depend on temperature. Because the measurement cell is placed in a heater block, which holds the temperature at about 45 C, fluctuations in sample temperature are relatively unimportant.The graph shows that as the sodium concentration decreases, the electrode response be-comes non-linear and eventually constant. The concentration at which the non-linearity starts determines the detection limit of the analyzer. The curvature is caused background sodium entering the sample from the diisopropylamine, from the small amount of glass in the system, and from of other ions that affect the potential of the measuring electrode. Therefore, as the sodium level in the sample decreases, the electrode fails to sense the change because the electrode potential is being controlled by larger background effects.10 ppblog Na
26What is the WetChem Analyzer? electronicscolorimetervalve pumpdrainmixing chamberoverflow samplerstream selector for multiple sample inputThe photograph shows the location of the reagents, standards, valve pump, colorimeter, mixing chamber, and overflow sampler in the series CFA 3000 colorimeteric analyzer. The appearance of the sodium analyzer is similar with the following differences. The sodium analyzer has no colorimeter. Instead, it has a sodium ISE (ion specific electrode) and reference electrode assembly. The assembly is attached to the back of the mixing chamber and is not visible from the front of the instrument.cartridge filter in samplereagents and standards
27Reagents and standards… Reagents and standards are sold as a unit.Reagents and reagent tubing are color-coded.reagentsstandard and zeroReagents and standards are sold as a unit. One part number gets the customer everything he needs.Bottles and reagent uptake tubes are color-coded. Replacing reagents is simply a matter of placing the blue reagent straw in the bottle with the blue dot, and so forth.The reagent and sample package lasts three months.
28Maintenance… Replace reagents and standards every three months. Replace cartridge filter as needed.Replace valve pump every 24 months.Purchasing yearly reagent contract is strongly recommended.Maintenance consists of the following…Replace reagents and standards every three months.Replace the 8 micron cartridge filter in each sample stream when needed. A particle-free sample is necessary for trouble-free operation of the analyzer.Replace the valve pump every year.Purchasing a yearly reagent and valve pump service contract is strongly recom-mended. The replacement valve pump is shipped at the end of the year period. The customer returns the old pump to the factory to be rebuilt.Replacing reagents takes only a few minutes. Replacing the valve pump takes about thirty minutes.
29Ordering the WetChem Analyzers… 185 - A Cmodel numbersilica analyzerthree sample streamsAt the time ordering, the customer must also specify:rangeisolated or non-isolated outputsingle or multiple outputspower: 115 Vac (60 Hz) or 230 Vac (50 Hz)The CFA 3000 series analyzers have a three part model option string: 185 is the model number; A001 identifies the analyzer as a silica analyzer; 03C identifies the analyzer as having a three -sample multiple input.At the time of ordering the customer must also specify:RangeWhether isolated or non-isolated outputs are required (non-isolated is standard).3. Whether single or multiple outputs are needed.4. Power requirements.
30Optical Dissolved Oxygen - RDO Released April 2010Single or Dual ChannelModbus Sensor to Transmitter to PLCBuyout Product from In-Situ Inc.
31Analyzer specifications Enclosure: Polycarbonate, NEMA 4X, IP67W X H X D: 6.3 x 6.3 x 3.6 in (16 x 16 x 9.0 cm)Display: liquid crystal, char. height 0.4 in (6 mm)Mounting: pipe or wallConduit openings: six (three gland fittings and five plugs supplied with each analyzer)Ambient conditions: -4 to 158F (-20 to 70C), 95% RHAnalog outputs: two, fully scalable (loop powered)Digital output: Modbus (RS485)Relays: two low voltage and two high voltageBarometric pressure: 8.86 to in Hg (300 to 1000 mbar)Barometric pressure accuracy: 0.09 in Hg (3 mbar)Power: 100 – 240 VAC, HzFor use in non-hazardous area only
32Sensor specifications Process connection: 1 ¼ inch FNPTRange: 0-20 ppmAccuracy: 0.1 ppm between 0 and 8 ppm); 0.2 ppm between 8 and 20 ppm)Resolution: 0.01 ppmResponse time: 30 sec to 90% of final valueCable: integral or quick disconnectIntegral cable length: 32 ft (10 m)Quick disconnect cable: 32 ft (10 m), 64 ft (20 m), 96 ft (30 m) standard lengthsTemperature: 32 to 122F (0 to 50C)Pressure: up to 314 psig (2060 kPa abs)Flow: no flow requirementsOperating life: one year from first reading8 in203 mm1.9 in47 mm
35Sensor Cap Sensor Cap needs to be replaced Annually The clock starts counting as soon as the cap is installedThere is a Symbol in Analyzer when cap expiresWhen the cap expires, the readings will be the Sentinel ValueDefault Sentinel Value is 0 mg/L
42Emerson Wireless SWAS RELIABLE MEASUREMENT WITH WIRELESS ANALYSERS WITH FULL REMOTEDIAGNOSTICS & PREDICTIVE MAINTENANCECOST SAVINGS- No Wires- No Cable Trays- No Cable Laying- No Dry Panel- Saves on DCS Hardware.QUICK START UP42