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1 System Products

2 Top 25 Products (Units/Yr)
1056 GP pH TUpH 400 228 5081 499 PERpHEX 1066 Oxymitter/6888 56 Hx pH 140 3200HP 150 Systems 222 1057 185 3800 TF396 328A 381+ 410VP 6081 Emerson Process Management Company Confidential

3 Free chlorine: Model FCL
chlorine sensor pH sensor Two versions FCL-01 chlorine only FCL-02 chlorine with pH correction Constant head flow controller--no valves or pressure regulators to worry about Minimum flow about 3 gph Everything mounted on a back plate Sensor cables pre-wired to the analyzer drain inlet flow controller

4 FCLi-01 VP connector 498CL-01 sensor 1056 analyzer
constant head flow controller cable pre-wired to analyzer inlet back plate drain

5 TCL… 1056 or 54eA analyzer pump switches sensor sample pump
reagent pump air injection sample inlet overflow sampler reagent uptake tube drain

6 monochloramine sensor
Model MCL monochloramine sensor inlet drain flow controller Constant head flow con-troller--no valves or pressure regulators needed. Minimum flow:3 gph Linear range: ppm Linearity: 2% (typical) Electrolyte life: about three months

7 Clarity II Turbidimeter
Clarity II Turbidimeter product position: Design supports accurate low-NTU for DW plants Key regulatory measurement for DW plants Your comments and suggestions are welcome. them to

8 Turbidity Definition - What is it?
Turbidity is the “optical property that causes light to be scattered and absorbed rather than transmitted in straight lines through the sample.” Ref: Standard Methods for Examination of Water and Wastewater Turbidity is the clarity of the water sample. INTRODUCTION Turbidity Definition A Turbidity meter measures the ability of suspended or undissolved particles to scatter light. As the number of particles in a sample increase, more light gets scattered and the turbidity value goes up.

9 Turbidity Theory - Basic Nephelometer
Detector Transmitted Light Light Source Scattered Light at 90° Light Scattered by Particles THEORY During the early 1900’s, the first instrument to make a turbidity measurement was referred to as the Jack Candle Turbidimeter, and consisted of a candle and a glass tube calibrated to equivalent ppm suspended silica turbidity. In the 1930’s, a white light bulb and a photo detector was used to monitor the intensity of light scattered at 90°. Turbidity is the measure of the amount of light scattered by particles in a sample. A beam of light passes through a sample containing suspended particles. The particles interact with the light and scatter the light. A detector measures the intensity of the scattered light. Turbidity is the measure of the amount of light scattered by particles in a sample. A beam of light passes through a sample containing suspended particles. The particles interact with the light and scatter the light. A detector at 90° measures the intensity of the scattered light.

10 Clarity II Online Turbidimeter
Complete System Single or Dual Sensor Input Molded Debubbler/Measuring Chamber USEPA Method or ISO Method ISO 7027 Resolution NTU Ideal for Low Level Turbidity for DW Plant Needs Full Featured Analyzer with Seven Languages NEMA 4X (IP65) Analyzer Two 4-20 mA Outputs 4 programmable Alarms (-02 and -03 power supplies) Suitable for final treated Wastewater Discharge and Industrial Process Water Applications PRODUCT The Clarity II Turbidimeter is a complete system for measuring turbidity of water. The system consists of: The Analyzer Model T1055 One or two sensors with debubbler/measuring chamber and cable assembly There is also an option to mount the above on an ABS plate. The Turbidity Analyzer Model T1055 has many of the same features as the Analyzer Model This will allow the plant to make all the liquid analytical measurements with the common operation of the Solu Comp II Analyzer Model 1055 platform.

11 Clarity II Online Turbidimeter
Clarity II Installation Analyzer: Surface or panel mount – one enclosure Polycarbonate enclosure – UV resistant Modular signal boards Easy wiring, removable connectors AC switching or 24VDC power supply Two 4-20mA current outputs Sensor: No wiring of sensor leads Sensor cable is pre-terminated with connector Sensor connector is NEMA PRODUCT The Clarity II Turbidimeter is a complete system for measuring turbidity of water. The system consists of: The Analyzer Model T1055 One or two sensors with debubbler/measuring chamber and cable assembly There is also an option to mount the above on an ABS plate. The Turbidity Analyzer Model T1055 has many of the same features as the Analyzer Model This will allow the plant to make all the liquid analytical measurements with the common operation of the Solu Comp II Analyzer Model 1055 platform.

12 Why Clarity II Turbidimeter?
Feature and Performance Clarity II Hach 1720E Formazin standard for cal 500 ml max 1,000 ml Single point calibration Yes No, two points required Debubbling method Two stage Open to atmosphere Turbidity and calculated TSS Yes No, Turbidity only User defined default screens Yes No Cleaning measuring chamber Easy Convoluted debubbler Modular measurement boards Yes Digital interface 3-year warranty on 1056 Yes No 2-year warranty on Sensor Yes No TEST RESULTS

13 Wet Chemistry Analyzers
The series CFA 3000 wet chemical analyzers are intended primarily for use in steam electric power plants, where they can be used to measure silica, phosphate, hydrazine, and sodium. This presentation covers… The basic water-steam cycle in a typical power plant. The points in the plant where silica, phosphate, hydrazine, and sodium are measured. Why the determination of silica, phosphate, hydrazine, and sodium is important to the plant operators.

14 Where is the WetChem used?
boiler superheated steam turbogenerator condenser makeup water feedwater heater train phosphate and silica cooling water silica hydrazine and sodium deaerater The slide shows the points in a drum-type plant where silica, phosphate, and hydrazine are typically measured. Silica is measured in two places: the final effluent from the makeup water system and the boiler water. Phosphate is measured in the boiler water only. Hydrazine is measured in the condensate system, downstream from the chemi-cal injection point. Sodium is not typically measured in a drum-type plant.

15 Where is the WetChem used?
turbogenerator supercritical steam exhaust steam deaerater steam generator condenser cooling water The slide shows the points in a supercritical plant where silica, sodium, and hydrazine are typically measured. Silica is measured in the final effluent from the makeup water system. Sodium is measured in the outlet from the condensate polisher. Typically, a polisher system consists of two or three polishers operated in parallel. Common practice is to measure sodium in each polisher effluent and in the combined polisher effluent. Hydrazine is rarely used in once-through plants, but if it is used, it is measured in the condensate system, downstream from the polisher and the chemical injection point. Phosphate is never used (or measured) in a once-through unit. makeup water shell and tube heater condensate polisher hydrazine sodium silica

16 Where is the WetChem used?
IP steam HP steam Steam turbine Deaerater HRSG Generator Exhaust gas HP IP LP Condenser silica Generator Demineralizer Gas turbine Hotwell HRSG HP: phosphate and silica IP and LP: phosphate hydrazine DI water tank

17 Why measure silica? Demineralizer Raw water Purified water Conductivity measures how well ionic contaminants are being removed. Contains mostly ionized dissolved solids, like sodium chloride. Also contains silica, which is not ionized. Silica is found in all natural waters. It is a scale-forming contaminant and must be removed before the water is suitable for use in a steam power plant. Silica is usually removed by ion exchange or by electrodeionization. Often, reverse os-mosis is used upstream of the ion exchanger or electrodeionization unit. Unlike most dissolved solids found in natural waters, silica is poorly ionized. For this reason, conductivity cannot be used to monitor how well the demineralizer is removing silica. Instead, silica must be measured directly. Most steam plants permit no more than 10 ppb (parts per billion) silica in the makeup water and boiler feedwater. Silica analyzer measures how well silica is being removed.

18 Why measure silica (cont’d)?
boiler water silica vaporizes silica accumulates in the boiler steam to turbine turbine generator steam Silica drops out of the steam and plates out on the turbine blades. steam drum Silica is also measured in the boiler water. As water becomes steam in the boiler, trace contaminants, silica among them, accumulate and concentrate in the boiler water. The contaminants come primarily from condenser tube leaks that allow cooling water to enter the system. The high temperature in the boiler causes a portion of the silica in the boiler water to volatilize. The vaporized silica carries over with the steam and enters the turbine. Small quantities of vaporized silica pass through the turbine without causing damage. However, if too much silica is present, it comes out of vaporous solution and plates out on the turbine blades. Even light accumulations of silica can greatly reduce turbine efficiency. Because the concentration of silica in the steam is proportional to its concen-tration in the boiler water, plant operators control silica in the steam by measur-ing its concentration in the boiler and blowing down the boiler if the concentra-tion gets too high. The amount of silica allowed in the boiler water is a function of drum pressure. The higher the boiler pressure, the less silica can be tolerated. Typical silica levels in boiler water range from a few hundred ppb to ten or twenty ppm.

19 Phosphate in the boiler water controls pH and reduces corrosion.
Why measure phosphate? boiler superheated steam turbogenerator condenser cooling water Phosphate in the boiler water controls pH and reduces corrosion. Acid forming contaminants from cooling water leakage accumulate in the boiler. deaerater Phosphate is added to boiler water to control pH and to provide buffering if acid-forming contaminants from a condenser tube leak enter the system. Boiler water chemistry is complex. Careful control of phosphate levels is necessary, lest the treatment chemical do more damage than not treating at all. Phosphate is injected directly into the boiler water. Normal treatment levels range from a few tenths of a ppm to 10 ppm.

20 The polisher blocks corrosive contaminants.
Why measure sodium? turbogenerator supercritical steam exhaust steam deaerater steam generator cooling water condensate polisher condenser In any steam power plant, corrosive and scale forming contaminants are constantly entering the water-steam cycle. Poor quality makeup water, cooling water leaks into the condenser, and air in-leakage at the condenser and low pressure turbine are the primary sources of contamination. In a drum-type unit, the contaminants accumulate in the boiler water, and by and large, that is where they remain. Although vaporization of contaminants and boiler water carryover allow contaminants to enter the steam, good chemical control in the boiler water keeps this threat to steam purity under control. In a once-through steam generator there is no water-steam separation. All the contaminants that enter the steam generator with the feedwater are carried with the steam into the turbine. The purpose of the condensate polisher is to remove contamination before it reaches the steam generator. Although conductivity and cation conductivity give a useful (and inexpensive) picture of polisher performance, many plant operators also monitor sodium. Sodium is ubiquitous and even small produce severe corrosion in the turbine. Measuring sodium directly provides a sensitive and direct measurement of a harmful corrodent. Measuring sodium also helps the operators distinguish between cation conductivity caused by severe corrodents like chloride and sulfate and less dangerous contaminants like carbon dioxide and weak organic acids. The maximum sodium concentration allowed in the polisher effluent (and, therefore, the steam) is 2 ppb. The polisher blocks corrosive contaminants.

21 WetChem Colorimetric analyzers Silica Phosphate Hydrazine
ISE (ion specific electrode analyzer) Sodium

22 How does the Colorimetric Analyzer work?
add reagents capture sample wait for complete color formation measure absorbance LED detector The CFA 3000 instruments are colorimetric wet chemical analyzers. In colorimetry a sample is treated with one or more chemical reagents that react with the substance to be determined to produce a color. For example, in the measurement of silica the reagents react with silica to produce a blue color. The intensity, or darkness, of the blue is proportional to the amount of silica. The darker the blue, the more silica in the sample. Color intensity is measured by passing light from an LED through the sample and measuring how much light is absorbed. The analyzer converts the result into a concentration reading using a previously determined calibration factor. The measurement is entirely automatic. The CFA 3000 captures the sample, adds reagents, measures the absorbance, and converts the results into a ppm or ppb reading. The user does little more than replace reagents every three months. The CFA 3000 analyzers are batch analyzers. They are not continuous. The sample update rate ranges from every 12 minutes to every 20 minutes, depend-ing on what is being measured.

23 How is the WetChem calibrated?
BLANK hydrazine, ppb absorbance blank standard sample CALIBRATION CURVE STANDARD The slide shows the steps in the calibration of a CFA 3018 hydrazine analyzer. All CFA 3000 instruments require a two-point calibration. The calibration is en-tirely automatic and is repeated at three-day intervals. In the first step, a volume of blank water is treated with the color development reagents and the absorbance is measured. Because the blank water contains no hydrazine, any color in the blank is caused by the color of the reagents them-selves or, which is very unlikely, by trace amounts of hydrazine in the reagents. Next, a volume of standard having a known concentration of hydrazine is treated with the reagents. The reagents react with hydrazine to produce a yellow color, and the analyzer measures the absorbance. Absorbance is directly proportional to concentration. The two data points (blank and standard) establish the calibration line. The analyzer automatically calcu-lates the slope. The slope, or calibration factor, is then used to convert sample absorbance into a ppb hydrazine value. The equation gives the details of the calculation. . ppb = abs sample – abs blank slope

24 ISE (Sodium) Analyzer pH glass electrode
mV is proportional to -log ([H+] + a[Na+]) Typically, a is small, so unless [Na+] is very large, there is no error. Na glass electrode mV is proportional to -log ([Na+] + b[H+]) Sodium analyzers use a glass electrode, similar to a pH glass electrode, to measure sodium. As the slide shows a pH glass electrode is sensitive to both hydrogen and sodium ions. In a pH electrode, the glass is formulated to make the response to sodium negligible. However, as the equation shows, if the hydrogen ion concentration is low enough (i.e., if the pH is high enough), the response to sodium becomes significant, and an error, called the sodium error, results. Sodium glass electrodes are formulated to have high sodium errors. However, as the equation shows, a sodium electrode still maintains some response to hydrogen ions. To ensure the electrode responds only to sodium, the pH of the sample must be made alkaline. The pH needed depends on the desired measurement range for sodium. The lower the measurement range, the higher is the required pH. Sodium glass electrodes are often called sodium ion specific electrodes or sodium ISEs. For the electrode to respond properly to sodium, the H+ concentration must be low enough, i.e. pH high enough, for the second term to be negligible.

25 How is the ISE (Sodium) Analyzer Calibrated?
Analyzer response is directly proportional to log Na. Standardization is a two point calibration using 10 ppb and 100 ppb standards. mV 100 ppb The sodium analyzer, like the colorimetric analyzers, requires calibration. The sodium analyzer is calibrated using a low (10 ppb) and high (100 ppb) standard. The calibration is automatic. The analyzer measures the voltage when the pH-adjusted low and high standards are present. The two points determine a straight line, and the microprocessor calculates the slope and intercept. The response of the sodium ISE to changes in sodium ion concentration is similar to the response of a glass electrode to changes in hydrogen ion concentration. The slope of the electrode is about 59 mV/decade at 25 C. In other words, a tenfold change in concentration produces a voltage change of 59 mV. The slope and offset also depend on temperature. Because the measurement cell is placed in a heater block, which holds the temperature at about 45 C, fluctuations in sample temperature are relatively unimportant. The graph shows that as the sodium concentration decreases, the electrode response be-comes non-linear and eventually constant. The concentration at which the non-linearity starts determines the detection limit of the analyzer. The curvature is caused background sodium entering the sample from the diisopropylamine, from the small amount of glass in the system, and from of other ions that affect the potential of the measuring electrode. Therefore, as the sodium level in the sample decreases, the electrode fails to sense the change because the electrode potential is being controlled by larger background effects. 10 ppb log Na

26 What is the WetChem Analyzer?
electronics colorimeter valve pump drain mixing chamber overflow sampler stream selector for multiple sample input The photograph shows the location of the reagents, standards, valve pump, colorimeter, mixing chamber, and overflow sampler in the series CFA 3000 colorimeteric analyzer. The appearance of the sodium analyzer is similar with the following differences. The sodium analyzer has no colorimeter. Instead, it has a sodium ISE (ion specific electrode) and reference electrode assembly. The assembly is attached to the back of the mixing chamber and is not visible from the front of the instrument. cartridge filter in sample reagents and standards

27 Reagents and standards…
Reagents and standards are sold as a unit. Reagents and reagent tubing are color-coded. reagents standard and zero Reagents and standards are sold as a unit. One part number gets the customer everything he needs. Bottles and reagent uptake tubes are color-coded. Replacing reagents is simply a matter of placing the blue reagent straw in the bottle with the blue dot, and so forth. The reagent and sample package lasts three months.

28 Maintenance… Replace reagents and standards every three months.
Replace cartridge filter as needed. Replace valve pump every 24 months. Purchasing yearly reagent contract is strongly recommended. Maintenance consists of the following… Replace reagents and standards every three months. Replace the 8 micron cartridge filter in each sample stream when needed. A particle-free sample is necessary for trouble-free operation of the analyzer. Replace the valve pump every year. Purchasing a yearly reagent and valve pump service contract is strongly recom-mended. The replacement valve pump is shipped at the end of the year period. The customer returns the old pump to the factory to be rebuilt. Replacing reagents takes only a few minutes. Replacing the valve pump takes about thirty minutes.

29 Ordering the WetChem Analyzers…
185 - A C model number silica analyzer three sample streams At the time ordering, the customer must also specify: range isolated or non-isolated output single or multiple outputs power: 115 Vac (60 Hz) or 230 Vac (50 Hz) The CFA 3000 series analyzers have a three part model option string: 185 is the model number; A001 identifies the analyzer as a silica analyzer; 03C identifies the analyzer as having a three -sample multiple input. At the time of ordering the customer must also specify: Range Whether isolated or non-isolated outputs are required (non-isolated is standard). 3. Whether single or multiple outputs are needed. 4. Power requirements.

30 Optical Dissolved Oxygen - RDO
Released April 2010 Single or Dual Channel Modbus Sensor to Transmitter to PLC Buyout Product from In-Situ Inc.

31 Analyzer specifications
Enclosure: Polycarbonate, NEMA 4X, IP67 W X H X D: 6.3 x 6.3 x 3.6 in (16 x 16 x 9.0 cm) Display: liquid crystal, char. height 0.4 in (6 mm) Mounting: pipe or wall Conduit openings: six (three gland fittings and five plugs supplied with each analyzer) Ambient conditions: -4 to 158F (-20 to 70C), 95% RH Analog outputs: two, fully scalable (loop powered) Digital output: Modbus (RS485) Relays: two low voltage and two high voltage Barometric pressure: 8.86 to in Hg (300 to 1000 mbar) Barometric pressure accuracy: 0.09 in Hg (3 mbar) Power: 100 – 240 VAC, Hz For use in non-hazardous area only

32 Sensor specifications
Process connection: 1 ¼ inch FNPT Range: 0-20 ppm Accuracy: 0.1 ppm between 0 and 8 ppm); 0.2 ppm between 8 and 20 ppm) Resolution: 0.01 ppm Response time: 30 sec to 90% of final value Cable: integral or quick disconnect Integral cable length: 32 ft (10 m) Quick disconnect cable: 32 ft (10 m), 64 ft (20 m), 96 ft (30 m) standard lengths Temperature: 32 to 122F (0 to 50C) Pressure: up to 314 psig (2060 kPa abs) Flow: no flow requirements Operating life: one year from first reading 8 in 203 mm 1.9 in 47 mm


34 Sensor Components

35 Sensor Cap Sensor Cap needs to be replaced Annually
The clock starts counting as soon as the cap is installed There is a Symbol in Analyzer when cap expires When the cap expires, the readings will be the Sentinel Value Default Sentinel Value is 0 mg/L

36 E + H

37 WTW

38 Hach

39 Multi-parameter Water Quality Systems

40 Optical, Electrochemical and Physical WQS Measurements
ORP Selective ion Conductivity Free chlorine Monochloramine Dissolved oxygen Optical Turbidity Physical Pressure Flow Temperature

41 Typical System


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