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The capitol of England is London, and a patron is Saint George. ANGLIA (ang. England) is geographically – historical region, which in the past was an independent dutchy, and now it is the part of Great Britain (ang. Strictly speaking United Kingdom) It is the biggest and the most populated part of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. United Kingdom apart from England consists of: Wales, Scotland and Northern Ireland. England is inhibited with 83% of all the residents of the island, and Englands surface occupies 2/3 of the overall surface of Great Britain. England borders with Wales from the west, and with scotland from the north. Moreover the country is surrounded by the North Sea, the Irish Sea, Atlantic Ocean and the English Channel. In the composition of England we also include more than 100 lesser islands such as: Isles of Scilly or Isle of Wight
39 counties and 7 metropolitan counties. England is divided into 9 regions, which are the biggest units of the local government. Each of the regions is divided into counties.
Londyn (ang. London) – the city in the south-east part of Great Britain, the capital city of England. Situated upon river Thames, is the third biggest city of Europe, the biggest city of the European Union and one of the biggest cities in the world both in therms of the sole city as well as in terms of the agglomeration. The number of the citizens of London (in the borders of so called Greater London) is about 7,6 mln on the land of 1 607 km²; the whole London agglomeration, together with all the bordering towns (from Tonbridge in the South-East to Windsor in the North-West) counts about 20 mln of citizens. About 20% of citizens come from Asia, Africa and the Caribbean.
Dr Johnson once said: "When a man is tired of London, he is tired of life". Doktor Johnson powiedział kiedyś: Gdy człowiek jest zmęczony Londynem, on jest zmęczony życiem".
England is the only country of the United Kingdom, which does not have its own parliament and stays under the jurisdiction of the British parliament, thereby the members of parliament, who come from outside England (for example. from Scotland), have the influence on the internal affairs of England. England is divided into nine regions: London, South East, South West, West Midlands, North West, North East, Yorkshire i Humber, East Midlands and East of England. All of these regions, in other words administrative units, dont have the authorities chosen in the direct election. London is the only exception, as it has a Mayora, being ellected and so called London Assembley. The official language is English. Citizens (over the age of 18) have the common right to vote.
The political system of England is based on the hereditary constitutional monarchy and simultaneously parliamentary representative democracy. Queen is the head of the state. He current monarch in reign is queen Elizabeth II. The legislative branch belongs to the Queen and to the parliament. The queen appoints the government (executive branch) which is responsible in front of bicameral parliament. The capital of the Great Britain is London situated in the territory of England. Elizabeth II- Elizabeth Alexandra Mary (born on 21st of April 1926 in London), the queen of the United Kingdom from the house of Windsor, crowned on the 2nd of June 1953, the daughter of king George VI and his wife – Elizabeth Bowes-Lyon called Queen Mother.
- In 1949 the clock was around 41 minutes slow, after the flock of birds sat on the minute hand - In 1962 the clock stoke the New Year ten minutes late, because of the heavy load of snow on its hands. - In 1952 when the bus was going through the Tower Bridge, the bridge started to rise, hopefully nobody was hurt.
There are many reasons why people emigrate, however the main reason that we emigrate are money. How much can we expect to earn after the arrival? The majority of men, especially these going abroad for the first time work for the work agencies. The majority of agencies offer the work, provide accomodation, commonly the means of transport from and to the work. In exchange they take some part of the earned money. A minimum hourly rate of pay you can earn in the United Kingdom is 5,35 per hour gross.
Children in Great Britain are obligated to attend school till the age of 16. In England the school obligation time ends in the last Friday of June in the span of academic year, in which the learner becomes 16. The current government makes the proposals of rising the age, to which learners are obliged to receive certain form of education or training up to 18. The school year lasts from September to July and lasts for 39 weeks. In many places the year is divided into 6 periods: *from September to October *from October to December *from January to February *from February to March *from April to May *from June to July
One of the most recognizable symbols of London are black taxis. These cars are produced in the limited ammounts practically exclusively for the needs of taxi corporations. The cars are spacious, they take 5 passengers and there is a lot of place for the luggage. The most popular way to catch a taxi in London is to halt the driving taxi on the street. However, there is also a posibility of ordering of the drive by phone, but it is connected with the additional payments. The taxis in London are not one of the cheapest, but in case of driving in groups they are a convenient form of transport.
The city bus network in London is one of the biggest and the most used in the world. Every day more than 6800 buses transports about 6 milion passangers on more than 700 different routes. We should remember that the most common phenomenon in London are thaffic jams. London busses can be late especially in the early hours, when people commute to work and during the peak hours. Thus when planning the drive, we should take into account the fact that when the bus is full the driver does not allow us to enter. Using buses in London we may get practically to every place. In order to get to the English airports (Heathrow, Stansted, Gatwick, Luton) we may use coaches. Storeyed bus – the bus with two levels (storeys), taking from 60 to 80 passengers. The stairs are leading to the second level floor, being usually situated just behind the drivers cabin.
Metro londyńskie (ang. London Underground, informally the Tube) – the system of local railway routes running in the underground tunnels and on the surface, supporting the majority of the Greater London. Despite its English name suggesting the underground, only about 45% of its routes length is situated under the surface. The system consists of 12 lines, 275 stations (including 14 beyond the administrative borders of Greater London) and 408 km of routes. It is used by about 3 mln passengers daily.
Wizz Air Hungary Legikozlekedesi short name Wizz Air – Hungarian cheap airlines, serving in Central and Eastern Europe, South Scandinavia, South Ireland and some regions of Great Britain, Benelux, Germany, France, Spain, Italy and Turkey. London Luton Airport – the international airport situated near Luton, 50 km north from London. It is the fourth (taking into account the number of transported passengers) airport of the city. In 2008 it serviced over 10 mln passengers. London Heathrow Airport – the biggest airport of Europe. It is situated 24 km west from the London center. The Heathrow airport in 2005 served for almoust 68 mln of passengers, which gave it the third place in the world taking into account the passenger traffic, after the airports in Chicago-O'Hare and Atlanta – Hartsfield- Jackson. London City Airport – international city airport in the district Royal Docks, being about 10 km from the very center of London Londyn-Gatwick London Gatwick Airport – the second busiest international airport in London (after Heathrow). It is situated 40 km south from the center of the capital of Great Britain and 40 km north from Brighton London Stansted Airport – big international airport situated 48 km north- east of London, serving cheap airlines. It is currently 4th of size in Great Britain, 3rd in size serving for London after Heathrow and Gatwick. It has one 3048-meter long starting runway.
In Great Britain, there is a left hand traffic, so the driver sits on the right side of the car. However, pedals are in the same order as in the left hand cars, with an accelerator pedal on the right side. The tools and almoust always the handbrake is operated with the left hand. Most of the cars in Great Britain have a gear lever. British people are driving deliberately, politely in comparison with the other road users, they obey the traffic rules, and rarely overtake even lorries.
Tower Bridge – a drawbridge in London (sometimes confused with the neighbouring bridge in London called London Bridge), running through the Themes river, near the Tower of London, from which it takes its name. One of the most famous sites in London, built in the Victorian style. The characteristic elements of the bridge are two main towers, joined at the top with two piers – overpass for pedestrians, hung 34 m over the roadway and more than 44 m over the mark of the upper level in the river. The middle part of the bridge consists of the two lifted bridge spans – the crane devices with counterweight. These are two gigantic wings, each of 1 200 tons of weight, when risen up, they form 86 degrees angle with the surface of the roadway.
Big Ben – the clock tower in Londynie in Great Britain. The name initially was referring to the bell from St. Stephen's Tower, called also The Clock Tower, belonging to the Westminster Palace. Currently the name Big Ben refers commonly to the bell, the clock as well as to the very tower.
London Eye, called also Millenium Wheel – an observation wheel (Ferris wheel) situated in Lambeth district in London, at the south bank of the river Thames, between the Westminster and Hungerford bridges. The wheel has 135 meters of height, and its full turn lasts for about 40 minutes. There are 32 air-conditioned passenger capsules on the wheel. The slow line speed of the cabins (about 0,9 km/h) allows for taking the passengers in and out of the wheel without stopping it.
The English national sport stadium situated in Wembley district in London. It has 90 000 places and is the third stadium in Europe considering its size. Taking into consideration technical and architectural solutions, and the cost of its construction, it is currently one of the most modern sport building in the world. The first official match at the new Wembley was carried out on 24th of March 2007 between the football representations of England and Italy up to 21. It ended with 3:3 score. Wembley will be the host stadium of the football Champions League in 2011.
Piccadilly Circus – the square and the crossroads of the main streets in the very heart of the theatre and entertainment district West End in Londynie, not far from Soho. It was built in 1819 after the crossing with Regent Street. Earlier it was called Portugal Street in honour of the princess Kate Braganz from Portugal, married by king Karol II. The place recognizable all over the world mainly thanks to the neon commercials such companies as e.g. SANYO, McDonald's and Coca-Cola, situated at one of the place corners. In the central place there is a fountain with Anteros figure. It is a place of meetings of Londoners and the tourist attraction of London. Directly under the square in the underground there is a Piccadilly Circus tube station.
Harrods – luxury department store on the Brompton Road, in Knightsbridge district in London. Apart from the department store Harrods Group includes Harrods Bank, Harrods Estates, Harrods Casino, Harrods Aviation and Air Harrods. Its name originates from the name of Charles Henry Harrods, who in 1849 opened a small grocers shop. In time the shop became the vast department store. In 1983 it was bought by the Egipcian Mohamed al Fayed, who made the shop even more exclusive. Nowadays Harrods is situated in 7 storey building and employs almoust 4000 people. Queen Elizabeth among other famous people was doing shopping in Harrods.
It is one of the most known Anglican Churches in Great Britain and buildings of London. It is situated in the very center of the district City of London and formally serves the function of the main church in that district. The care of the church is taken directly by Lord Mayor. St Pauls Cathedral was built as a symbol of the Londons revival and is characterized by the flourish and monumentality, however it is less prominent then the Vaticans St Peters Basilica. St Pauls Cathedral has about 158 meters of length and about 75 meters of width. The hight of the building measured from the floor to the top of the cross situated on the dome counts 108 meters.
The astronomical observatory built by the king Karol II on 10th of August 1675r. It was managed in in later years by John Flamsteed among others. It served then for the astronometric measures, useful for navigation in the oceanic shipping. Then the seat of the manager was taken by Edmond Halley (in 1720). The observatory sets the position of the zero meridian.
Westminster Abbey is the most important, together with the Cathedral in Canterbury and St. Pauls Cathedral in London City, it is an Anglican Church. The Abbey beginning from William the Conqueror (1066) is a place of English kings coronation, with the exception of Edward V and Edward VIII, who were not crowned. from XIII century the Abbey is also the place of burial of kings and distinguished people.
Windsor Castle – from 1110 the residence of English kings, situated in the town of Windsor (Berkshire county in England). It consists of the numerous buildings surrounded by walls with towers and gateways. It was built in 1070-1086 by William I the Conqueror, then developed by the following rulers; such as Edward III who erected here in the 14th century the Round Tower
Westminster Cathedral, dedicated to the Most Precious Blood of Jesus Christ – the Roman Catholic basilica erected at the turn of the 19th and 20th century in London in neobisantic style. The main catholic church of England and Wales, Cathedral of the Archbishop of Westminster.
It is the official residence of British monarchs and simultaneously the biggest kings palace in the world still servinng its original function. The official Londons residence of the Queen. From 1913 the statue of Queen Victoria stands on the square in front of the palace. Nowadays Buckingham Palace, apart from the role of Londons residence of Queen Elizabeth II and the royal family, is also a place of state celebrations as well as the official meetings of the Heads of State. For the British the palace constitutes a symbol of Great Britain – here Londoners were offering flowers after the death of princess of Wales - Diana.
Theatre in London functioning in years 1599- 1642, established by R. and C. Burbage. One of the co- owners was William Shakespeare. The premieres of his works were exhibited there as well as the arts of Ben Johnson and J. Webster. The actors were exclusively male. The theatre was build in 1599. It was burned in a fire in 1613, and rebuilt in 1614. Due to the Puritans intervention it was closed in 1642, then it was demolished two years later. The building was reconstructed according to the project of the Buro Happold company and opened in 1997. The Globe was amphitheatre, which could seat 3000 spectators. It had the shape of circle. The seats were divided into standing (cheaper) and sitting (more expensive).
Trafalgar Square – the square in central London situated in the old site of the royal stables, comemorating the victory of the British Royal Navy in the sea battle of Trafalgar in 1805. Its construction was started in 1829 and in 1843 the 55–meters high column called Nelson Column was erected. The square is also decorated with the monuments of George IV, gen. Havelok and gen. Napier as well as sir Lutyens fountains.
One of the most famous European monolith structures, from the neolith age and bronze age. Megalith is situated 13 km from Salisbury in Wiltshire county in the south of England. It was the most probably connected with the cult of moon and sun. It consists of the earth embankments surrounding the big complex of the standing stones. The site is included into the UNESCO list of the worlds heritage from 1986. The place, where the Stonehenge structure was erected. It gained the cultural significance before 2950 BC. The prove of it is in the graves outside the megalith dated even at about 3100 BC and the ring from the ground dated also at that time.
British Museum – one of the biggest museums of the ancient history in the world It was created thanks to sir Hans Sloane, physician, naturalist and collector. He wanted to save his collection of literature and works of art counting more than 71 thousand objects. He offered then its sale for 20 thousand pounds for king George II.
The museum was opened in 1917 for commemoration of the fallen in the time of the World War I. Initially it was situated in the Crystal Palace building, which was burned down in 1936. The seat was transfered to Lambeth Road in Southwark to the building initially serving the function of the psychiatric hospital. The collection of the museum was extended during the World War II and in 1953 they started presenting the exhibits from all the British armed conflicts. The museum includes also a big collection of the recordings of interviews with the witnesses of wars and holocaust.
A wax figures museum (ang. Madame Tussauds) it was founded by Marie Tussaud, who in fact was called Marie Grossholtz (born on 1st of December 1761 in Strasburg, died on 16th of April 1850 in London). She came to London after the French Revolution with the formerly prepared wax casts of heads of decapitated French aristocrats such as Maria Louisa, princess de Lamballe. She often had to look for the particular heads on her own. She inherited her talent after Mr. Curtius. Her museum was passed by means of inheritance. The last portrait was made 8 years before her death. The said casts became the onset of the great collection presenting known people from various life branches. After comming to England in 1835 she set the first exhibition at Baker Street it was the first exhibition, which in 1884 was moved by her grandson to the present site at Marylebone Road.
It is the oldest of the parks included in the group of royal parks in London. It is situated in the City of Westminster, East of the Buckingham Palace and West of the Whitehall and Downing Street. St. James's, to which belong not only the very park but also St. James's Palace, is situated in the north. Park has a surface of 23 hectares (58 acres). The borders of St. James's Park are indicated by the streets: The Mall in north, Hourse Guards in east and Birdcage Walk in south. There is also a small lake called St. James's Park Lake, with two islands, Duck Island (called that because of the occurrence of the various species of waterfowl) and West Island. The bridge running over the lake allows to see the eastern side of the Buckingham Palace surrounded with trees and fountains and simmilarly enclosed western facade of the Foreign Office seat.
Hyde Park – one of the few royal parks in London, laying in the area of 390 acres (about 159 ha). Divided in two parts by the lake Serpentine. From the 19th century the park became the popular place of social meetings and cultural events. In front of the park, at the north-east corner, there is a Marble Arch. It was the original gate of the Buckingham Palace built in 1827. It turned to be too narrow for the royal carriage and was moved to the present place in 1851.
Tintagel is a village situated on the Atlantic coast of Cornwall, United Kingdom. The village and nearby Tintagel Castle are associated with the legends surrounding King Arthur and the knights of the Round Table. During the 19th century Tintagel was visited by many notable writers, including Robert Stephen Hawker, Charles Dickens, Alfred, Lord Tennyson and Thomas Hardy. The village has, in recent times, become attractive to tourists from many parts of the world and is one of the most- visited places in Britain. Tintagel
Bath is a city in the south west of England. It is situated 156 km west of London and 21 km south-east of Bristol. The population of the city is 83,992. It was granted city status by Queen Elizabeth I in 1590. The city was first established as a spa resort with the Latin name, Aquae Sulis ("the waters of Sulis") by the Romans in AD 43. They built baths and a temple on the surrounding hills of Bath in the valley of the River Avon around hot springs. The City of Bath was inscribed as a World Heritage Site in 1987. The city has a variety of theatres, museums, and other cultural and sporting venues, which have helped to make it a major centre for tourism, with over one million staying visitors per year. Bath
Great Britain is a very modern but on the other hand very tradition bound country. The prove of it is the strong attachement of the British people to the royal family, who despite its numerous scandals still is widely respected. According to the tradition, every year on the 8th of June the Queens birthday is celebrated. During this holiday there is a celebration of the Household Cavalry (Trooping the Colour). It is worth to say that during the year in Great Britain there are many celebrations. Eating customs in the United Kingdom consist of three meals. The traditional breakfast consists of: tomatoes, eggs, becon, saussage and toasted bread. On Sunday people usually eat Roast dinner, which consist of: roasted meet, roasted potatoes, vegetables and Yorkshire pudding. Every day at 17.00 there is a Tea Time, that is the custom of tea drinking (the statistical British person drinks daily about 8 cups of tea).
The British custom initiated by duchess of Bedford and Queen Victoria. The time of tea is traditionally at 5 oclock. The tea is served then, which is served in England with milk, cakes or sandwitches.
According to the tradition at the turn of 24th and 25th of December the biggest bell in the church at the hour before midnight rings four times, and punctually at midnight all the bells start to ring – this is the beginning of Christmas, the joy of the newly born Christ.
Druids believed, that mistletoe fell down from heaven and that is why it grows on trees. In this way it joins this which is heavenly and spiritual with this which is earthly. Thus it symbolizes the reconciliation of God with the sinful humanity. The custom of kissing in public under a mistletoe comes just from England. At first we should tear off the white berry from the twig and hand it in to a person who we want to kiss. When the berries end, the kisses end too. Mistletoe is also a plant of friendship and reconciliation. In one of the York churches the mistletoe masses were served. The public sinners could be absolved then.
The sharp leaves of that plant are the symbol of the crown of thorns, which Christ had on his head before crucifixion. The red berries are the symbol of His blood. That is why the Holly is called the bush of thorns. The most famous variety grows in Glastonbury, where it was supposedly planted by St. Joseph of Arimathea (shortly after the crucifixion of Jesus he had to come to England, to introduce the Christianity there). Every year mayors of Glastonbury and Somerset and the vicar of the local churchof St. John the Babtist cut the twig from the bush and send to the royal court as a decoration of the table. In Scotland the holly twig was hung over the doors, to protect the house from the naughty elves. In the middle England there was a custom, that boys cut their hands with a sharp leaf, and the number of drops of the drown blood told about the count of years left to live.
A holly is considered to be a symbol of manhood. Ivy on the other hand is a symbol of womanhood. This plant does not grow on its own, it must rely on something. It depicts the weakness of a man, who should rely on God. Ivy climbing the wall of the house had to keep the witches away. The twig of an ivy - cut on the Christmas Eve and put on the saucer with water - tells the successful harvest in the following year, if it survives till the Three Magi celebration. Neither holly, nor ivy was not supposed to be taken home before Christmas – this brings bad luck. According to which of these plants will be taken home first we may distinguish who will rule the house through the following year – woman or man.
The first Christmas tree was brought to England by prince Albert, a husband of Queen Victoria. The richly decorated tree occurred in the Windsor castle in 1841. The queen was very pleased of it and it was welcomed by others especially rich houses of high – class and rich middle class representatives. Spruce Christmas Tree is a German tradition, but originating in... England. St. Boniface from Devon, living in the 8th century, went to Europe, to preach the Christianity among Germanic tribes. The evergreen spruce was at that time considered as a symbol of Christianity and eternal God in England. The german tribes worshipped an oak, which was richly decorated in the time of the turn of winter celebration. As the legend says, Boniface in a gesture of opposition to the pagan celebration he cut an oak, which was supposed to be in the center of celebration. To everyones surprise the spruce grew from the cut tree. From that time on the custom of decorating spruce in candles was born in Germany, so that st. Boniface could preach among the pagan also at night. Supposedly it was Martin Luter who brought the first tree decorated with the shining stars to the house. During the Victorian times the tree was decorated in candles. First electric lamps appeared in 1895.
At Christmas in England Christmas tables look different than in Poland. The traditional dish is a turkey stuffed with various vegetables (supposedly better than our Christmas Eve carp). It is accompained with the different dishes too such as the sausages with a rolled becon etc. English people eat the main dish at noon or shortly after. The dishes are eaten in the crowns made of paper. It is the symbol referring to Three Magi. Christmas in England cannot be celebrated without the traditional pudding for a dessert. It is served in a coating glaze from the blancmange or brandy. In the leter case alcohol is set on fire, and the flames are supposed to protect from the bad luck. The tradition tells, that the pudding should be made of 13 components (flour, beef suet, almonds, 3 types of raisin, crumbs, sugar, eggs, rum, grated carrot, candied cherries and lemon juice). It serves as a symbol of 12 disciples and Jesus Christ. Apart from pudding, muffins with delicacies and other delicious desserts are served too.
The second day of Christmas is traditionally called Boxing Day and contrary to the initial association it is not related to fightings but to boxes, given most commonly today for milkmen and newsboys in the form of tips.
Bonfire Night or Guy Fawkes Day is on November 5th. It celebrates the attempt by Guy Fawkes to destroy the Houses of Parliament in 1605. A lot of people decide to make their own guy to burn out of old clothes. In Lewes, a town in East Sussex, the town decides on one evil person to burn each year.
Pancake Day is celebrated on Shrove Tuesday which is the dy before Lent. Shrove Tuesday is often referred to as Pancake Day because fats, which were generally prohibited during Lent, had to be used up. In the United Kingdom of Great Britian Pancake Day is celebrated with fun, games, and of course a lot of eating. However, the most well known activity on this day is the Pancake Day race at Olney in Buckinghamshire. Only women are allowed to participate in this race. They must run a designated path with a frying pan and end up at the church. They must have a hot pancake in the frying pan which they must flip at least three times before they complete the race.
This celebration takes place on January 25th, and celebrates Robert Burns life. Robert Burns was the greatest Scottish poet. During this day people meet, read his poems, men wear kilts. The tradition is to eat a big dinner on this day so families and friends meet and eat Haggis, which is minced sheeps liver, heart and lungs tied up inside a sheeps stomach.
Great Britain introduced to the worlds do cuisine primarily hot breakfast, afternoon tea and the traditional puddings. Great Britain as first introduced fast food and take away dishes in the form of the famous fish and chips, sandwitches and Cornish pasty (vegetables and meat in cake). The modern British cuisine is diverse and innovative, nontheless it is worth to try the traditional dishes, which are prepared from the first-grade ingredients, such as beef, lamb and deer. In Great Britain, the island country, traditionally a lot of fish food is eaten, however the sea fruit, being formerly cheap are recently considerably more expensive. Full English breakfast consists of becon and eggs, mushroom and grilled tomatoes, mutton sausages, blood sausage and toasts. Laverbread is a Welsh speciality prepared from the dark seeweed. It is served cold with sea fruit or warm with bacon, toast and tomato. Cornish pasty is meat and wegetables baked in cake.
The style of English gardens is not a one style. It is an infinite number of styles, gardens and people, who created them. The English garden is most of all a garden tended with hands of many generations, with a great love and devotion. Muddy wellingtons, clippers in one hand, the cup of steaming tea in the other – these are the attributes of a typical British, who despite the rain and wind spends long hours on weeding and digging his garden. Stylish kitchen filled with seedings and covered with the garden soil – it is a pretty regular phenomenon. Because garden is the most important!
The garden in English style is characterised with the romantic character – full of the colourfull flowers, the smell of roses, misterious nooks and stylish decorations. Worth mentioning are the vast areas, spacious lawns and the free, wild character being seen inter alia in the choice of plants.
The space is divided into the separate interiors of various functions. The vital elements of these green rooms are potted plants in stylish containers, sculptures and other details (most commonly cast-iron or wooden).
Perennial beds are characteristic for its style. They can have the amphiteatrical order (low level plants at front and higher level plants in the rear) or in the free style (between the low plants there are the clumps of higher).
Among plants there are roses spread on pergoli, garden houses, columns and by the house entrances. They are eagerly planted also on flower beds, giving them a romantic character.
It is a rhythmically simple ballroom dance, however it demands from the partners the great physical fit. Slow waltz (English waltz) as the very name suggests comes from England and it was danced for the first time at the end of 1921. Its steps and turns indicate that its father was Viennese waltz. Tact: ¾ Tempo: 29-30 tacts per minute
Foxtrot is an English term meaning the step of fox. Very popular at the beginning of our century, trully free, having no strict rules. When the actor Harry Fox introduced in his band trotting steps, and masters have smoothed it, thus it gained its style and character. This dance distinguishes a boy from a man. When observing the dancers there is an impression of smoothyness and the confidence of motion. The same as English waltz it is a typical English dance and is considered to be the most difficult standard dance despite it is based on the basic walking figures. Tact: 4/4 Tempo: 29-30 tacts per minute
It was born in America from onestep and rag. In 1914 it came to England. It is a quick variation of foxtrot, gushing with energy, different style and character, proposed at the congress of dance teachers in 1924. It can symbolise young people full of joy and life, taking joy of every while spent together by means of jumps, running steps, fast changes of direction, turnover figures and progressive ones. It demands to be in a good fit and good controll of ones ballance, especially because it is danced at the end of the tournament. During the tournament it is danced in the tempo of 52 tacts per minute. It is a very quick tempo, that is why this dance is called quickstep - quic Foxtrot. Tact: 4/4,Tempo: 50- 53 tacts per minute.
The young dance created in the time of so called dance revolution after 1910 as a result of the stylization of swing and jazz origin, rich in many movement inspirations. As a jitlerburg it was carried to Europe in 1940 by the American soldiers. Later on known as boigie - woogie. It was later developed in England. From the mid 70s it is a tournament dance. In this dance there are some African influences. Jive shows us how great joy the life is. Simmilar to rock and roll, but without the acrobatic figures. In the present version it is a classic jazz dance, influencing the emergence of the new dancing figures dancing jinks". All of them are fleeting phenomena, whereas jive lasts and still developes. Simmilarly as in quickstep it demands good fit and condition, because it is danced as a last dance. Tact: 4/4. Tempo: 44 tacts per minute