2 Great Britainformally known as the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland , is situated on the British Isles , which lie to the north – west of the continent of Europe . Great Britain consists of England , the capital is London , Wales – the capital is Cardiff , Scotland – the capital is Edinburgh and Northern Ireland – the capital is Belfast .London is one of the largest cities in the world and the largest city in Europe. The city is very old. It has more than 20 centuries old history. Traditionally it is divided into several parts: the City, the Westminster, the West End and the East End.
3 The CityThe City is the oldest part of London. Two masterpieces are situated within the City: St. Paul’s Cathedral and the Tower of London.
4 St Paul`s CathedralIt is one of the greatest churches in the world. It is not far from the tower of London. The famous English architect was Sir Christopher Wren. This church was built in the 17 th century after the Great Fire.Every day about people come to St. Paul: some attend the services, some are tourists from all parts of our planet. It is the main church of London. A lot of important events were celebrated at the Cathedral: the Golden Jubilees of Queen Victoria and Queen Elizabeth II. The Cathedral is also the burial place of many important political figures. It is a fine building with many columns and towers. In one of the towers there is one of the largest bells in the world.
5 The Tower of LondonWilliam the Conqueror built it in the 11 th century. It was a fortress, a palace, a prison and the Kings’ Zoo. Kings sometimes got strange presents. About 700 years ago King Henry III got 3 leopards, an elephant and a polar bear. He kept them in the Tower. The elephant died after two years but the polar bear was happy as it went swimming and fishing in the Thames. That was the start of London Zoo. In 1835 all animals left the Tower and were sent to the Zoo in Regent’s Park. Only the ravens stayed there. There are always at least 6 ravens at the tower. There is a story that they bring good luck to Britain, if they stay at the Tower. That’s why they get paid meat and biscuits every day. But their wings are cut so that they can’t fly away. They are not very friendly. One day one of them bit a German minister. The Tower of London was a royal palace long ago. Then it became a prison. Kings, queens were locked up here. Many, liked Lady Jane Grey, lost their heads in the Tower of London. The last time it was a prison during the Second World War. Now it is a museum. You can see a lot of interesting things in the hall of this building.
14 The Westminsteris the aristocratic official part of London. It includes Buckingham Palace, the House of Parliament with its famous Clock Tower, known as Big Ben and the Westminster Abbey.
15 Buckingham Palaceis the official London residence of the British Monarch. The Palace has 600 rooms. The palace was built by the duke of Buckingham in1705.Today it is a very busy place. Several hundred people work here, helping the Monarch run the country. In 1994 the Queen Elisabeth II opened the Palace to the public. You can visit Buckingham Palace in August and September when the Monarch goes on holiday. During these two months the Palace receives about 8000 visitors a day.
16 They are long grey buildings with towers They are long grey buildings with towers. The large clock in one of the towers is "Big Ben". You can hear the sound of "Big Ben" every hour in London. The clock and the bell got their names after Sir Benjamin Hall.Westminster Palace is the house of the British Parliament. The members of the British Parliament work here. British Parliament consists of the House of Commons and the House of Lords. Аll laws are passed important political and social question are discussed in there buildings.The palace of Westminster is open to the public. You can enter it and see some very interesting historic rooms and halls. At the ceiling of the main hall you can see the 3 colours of Parliament - gold that symbolizes the Monarchy, red - the symbol of the House of Lords and green - the symbol of the House of Commons.They are long grey buildings with towers. The large clock in one of the towers is "Big Ben". You can hear the sound of "Big Ben" every hour in London. The clock and the bell got their names after Sir Benjamin Hall.
17 Westminster AbbeyIt's more than 9 hundred years old. There are many monuments and statues there, many English kings and queens are buried there. It's famous for the Poet's Corner. It's one of the most famous and beautiful churches in London. This church has two tall towers.
20 The West EndThe West End is the richest and most beautiful part of London. It is a symbol of wealth and luxury. There are many places of interest in it. For example, Trafalgar Square, in the centre of it there is Nelson’ Column; opposite the Nelson monument is the National Gallery and the National Portrait Gallery; not far from the National Gallery is the British Museum.
21 Trafalgar Square A famous square in the centre of London
22 Trafalgar SquareIn the middle of it a monument to Admiral Nelson is situated. Admiral Nelson had to fight to the French at the Battle of Trafalgar in 1805.
23 Trafalgar SquareThe monument includes 4 bronze lions. There are two fountains in it. These lions at the foot of the column were designed by Baron Marochetti. Trafalgar Square is the place for political meetings and demonstrations. Since the Second World War every year at Christmas time an enormous Christmas tree is
24 The National GalleryIt’s one of the best picture galleries of the world. At this museum you can learn about the history of plants, animals and minerals.It’s a fine building with tall columns. There are two beautiful fountains in front of the National Gallery. Every day many tourists visit it.