2Outline What is industrial agglomeration? What are the characteristics of industrial agglomeration?How does industrial agglomeration occur?Why does industrial agglomeration occur?Is industrial agglomeration good?
3What is industrial agglomeration? It refers to high concentration of industrial activities in an area because industries may enjoy both internal and external economies when they cluster together (agglomerate).
4Is it a phenomenon or process? Agglomeration as a phenomenon: it refers to the spatial clustering or concentration of industrial activities in a relatively small area.Agglomeration as a process: it refers to the snowballing process whereby more and more manufacturing firms cluster or areally concentrate in a relatively small area.
52 forms of agglomeration Concentration of related or well-linked factories together and form a specialized industrial region.Concentration of various kinds of factories in the industrial zones in urban area.
6Spatial effects of Ind. Aggl. Over time, industrial agglomeration results in the growth of large industrial concentrations, producing different areal patterns of industrial land use. They have large numbers of associated and inter-dependent factories, surrounded and served by residential and commercial areas.
7Industrial districtsHong Kong - Kwun Tong, Tai Kok Tsui, Tai Po Industrial EstateSydney - Paramatta, Alexandria, etc
8Minor industrial centres/towns PRD - Foshan, Dongguang, Shunda
9Industrial cities Shanghai (textile) Nagoya/Toyota (car-making) Detroit (car-making)
10Industrial regions Silicon Valley in California (electronics) around Inland Sea of Japan (shipbuilding)PRD in South China (toy)
11Characteristics of an ind. aggl. Clustering of industrial activitiesFunctional linkages production linkages + service linkagesWhen materials move from one firm to another (production linkages)As the firms share the specialized services and facilities (service linkages)Economies of scale
12How is industrial agglomeration developed? A case of Quarry Bay
14Quarry Bay Tai Koo Sugar Refinery was established in 1883 With growing trade in raw cane sugar from Java, the Philippines and North Queensland, and ready markets in China and Japan, Taikoo Sugar ran the world's largest sugar plant in its day, and owned small fleet of sugar carrying ships.
15What were the original factors and attraction for the sugar factory? Available of landCoastal locationSheltered locationAvailability of labour
16The problemMore than 3,000 workers were needed but the population of Shaukeiwan was only 3,274Hostels were provided and so workers from other places were attractedMore jobs mean more income. It in turns increased the purchasing power of peopleOther related facilities were provided, e.g. clinic, school
17Tai Koo Dockyardin 1900, on land adjacent to the sugar refinery, construction work began on Taikoo Dockyard.
18Industrial agglomeration Taikoo Dockyard launched its first riverboat in 1910, soon began to produce coasters for the company.The dockyard was to become one of Hong Kong's biggest, and also one of its most progressive employers, providing its own housing, hospital and school.
19Snowballing effectsMore jobs more income higher purchasing power development of entertainment (麗池夜總會)More jobs more settlements growth of urban population in Quarry BayMore population more services = more public utilities
20Snowballing effectsQuarry Bay was still an important industrial district in 1970s and 1980sFactories included soft-drinks factory (7-up), Printing (Kodak), car repair centre (大昌行), various electronics ind.The growing population supported the industries which become more profitable and enjoyed the benefits from agglomerationThe whole process is cumulative and growth becomes self-sustaining.
21Myrdal’s Model of Cumulative Causation Process A new industrial plant set up extra employment/more jobs income and the purchasing power ↑as the size of the population grows increases the demand for consumer goods, houses, schools and services more employment opportunities in other industries, e.g. in commerce, construction, service, etc.
22Myrdal’s Model of Cumulative Causation Process The new industry itself demands local goods and services.It may attract linked industries which supply it with raw materials (called supplier-industries) or use its products (called user-industries).
23Myrdal’s Model of Cumulative Causation Process further increases employment and expanding services, public utilities and construction. attract even more economic activities which become more profitable (enjoying the benefits from agglomeration economies)the expanding city (increase in city scale) reaches the threshold level for various services.Thus, the whole process is cumulative and growth becomes self-sustaining.
24Reasons for industrial agglomeration What benefits can be obtained from industrial agglomeration?
25Initial factors and attraction They refer to the original factors that attract the location of early industries at a certain site.These factors can be natural or man-made. They start the cumulative process of industrial agglomeration and create the snowballing effects on industrial development and agglomeration.The area with initial growing factors is known as the growth pole.
26Linkages Production unit Subcontract Information Service links links Marketinglinks
29Diagonal Linkages Jam- Fruit bottling Ice cream making canning Sugar refineryGlass bottlefactorySugar mill
303 types of Industrial linkages vertical (one-to-one) linkage - forward and backward linkagehorizontal (many-to-one) linkagediagonal (one-to-many) linkageIndustries with simple vertical linkages have a very strong production relationship. They can obtain the greatest economic advantages, once they are grouped or agglomerated together in a small area.
31Benefits from vertical linkages lower cost of transporting goods from factory to factory, e.g. integrated plants of I&S ind. (transfer economies)
32Localization economies energy savings, e.g. I&S ind.waste products or final products from one industry can be the raw materials of another ∴ specialization in production. economies of division of labour + mechanizationdiscounts can be obtained when several firms buying similar inputs in bulk.Advertising cost ↓∵ good reputation.presence of ancillary servicessaving of storageclose relationships among factories makes it easy to solve the problems of similar nature and to maintain higher level of production skills.
33Urbanization economies a pool of skilled labour and managerial expertiseinfrastructure savingssnowballing effectresearch & developmentattracting investment
34Diseconomies of scale Physical Economic shortage of land for expansion shortage of labourtraffic congestionurban decayEconomicrising rentrising labour costhigh tax
35Social pollution / environmental problems high crime rate pressure from labour unionpressure from green groupsgovernment policy
36Solution to industrial agglomeration Industrial degglomeration/decentralization(to be discussed in the next lesson)