INTRODUCTION Economic character of the Manufacturing Core's major cities: –(1) Atlantic coastal cities and their environs –(2) Cities of the interior core, located between the Ohio River and the Great Lakes Light industry is more dominant in the former while heavy industry characterizes the latter. Today's lesson focuses on locational factors within the core and the economic character of a few of its major centers.
LIGHT INDUSTRY Manufacturing activities that use moderate amounts of partially processed materials Produce items of relatively high value per unit weight
LOCATIONAL FACTORS Break-in-Bulk Points –Transfer points along a transfer route –Mode of transportation or type of carrier changes –Large shipments are reduced in size. Complementarity - exists at the regional scale when two regions, through an exchange of raw materials and finished products, can specifically satisfy each other's demands.
INDUSTRIAL AGGLOMERATION The clustering of manufacturing activities Businesses and plants benefit from close proximity. Share the costs of common operating requirements Advantages - Firms can share…. skilled labor pools communications systems utility and power sources transportation networks Firms may even consume what each other produces. Economical>>reduces initial construction costs and subsequent operating costs
INDUSTRIAL SITE FACTORS Raw materials Labor Transportation Energy sources Communications networks An accessible market
INERTIA COSTS OF LOCATION Costs born by an activity because it remains located at its original site, even though the distributions of supply and demand have changed The costs which a firm must bear when it is no longer situated at the optimum location. Examples???
THE EMERGENCE OF CHICAGO An urban center which overcame unfavorable characteristics of its site and evolved to prominence based on its situation Site Disadvantages –Established on the swampy margins of Lake Michigan, an ideal habitat for mosquitoes and other pests. –Poor quality drinking-water –The Chicago River was too small to serve as an effective transportation link –The city was almost completely destroyed by fire in 1871
THE EMERGENCE OF CHICAGO (continued) Situational Advantages –The city's location evolved as the optimum transportation hub as goods were transferred between the Lake Region and the agricultural interior. –The city became the regional rail hub of the western manufacturing core- benefiting from both manufacturing and agriculture.
ECONOMIC CHARACTER OF CORE CITIES New York Philadelphia Pittsburgh Cleveland Detroit Chicago Buffalo Toronto Milwaukee Boston
NEW YORK Major port city Immigration point Office industries prevail Banking Publishing houses Insurance companies
PHILADELPHIA Major port city Food processing Ship building Steel and metal fabrication
Major inland port Iron Steel Light industries Corporate headquarters PITTSBURGH
CLEVELAND Major port Transfer point Iron Steel Rock & roll
DETROIT Major port city Automotive industry Variety of supporting light industries
CHICAGO Port city Transport hub Meat-packing Furniture Clothing Steel
ECONOMIC CHARACTER OF CORE CITIES Generalizations concerning the economic character of other major cities of the manufacturing core. Boston - initially clothing and leather; since World War II, electronic components and machinery Buffalo - formerly the continent's premier flour-milling center- more recently, chemical industries, aluminum Toronto - a variety of light industries Milwaukee - brewing, steel, motor vehicles, food processing
THE NORTH AMERICAN MANUFACTURING CORE (CHAPTER 5: PART 2)