Pre-war steel centres Kamaishi ( ) Kitakyushu ( ) Muroran ( ) located near coalfields raw-material oriented coastal locations
Post-war agglomeration Osaka-Kobe area ( ) Tokyo-Yokohama area ( ) Fukuyama ( ) Nagoya ( ) Manufacturing belt market-oriented coastal location
Reasons for industrial agglomeration change from raw-material oriented to market- oriented past – near coalfields but now – near markets attracted by coastal locations And large conurbations due to supply of scrap metal and labour Therefore, they cluster along Manufacturing Belt
Reasons for indsutrial relocation integrated steel plants need a lot of flat land (space-demanding) which is available near coastal areas by reclamation
Reasons for indsutrial relocation declining supply of local coal and iron ore ports enable import of raw materials
Reasons for indsutrial relocation coastal locations have deep water ports and good port facilities bulk carriers can be used to reduce transport cost
Reasons for indsutrial relocation large local and overseas markets freight rate of products > raw materials therefore, market-orientation is preferable
Reasons for indsutrial relocation steel-using industries / industrial linkages found in Manufacturing Belt ship-building/car industries Enjoys agglomeration economies
Reasons for indsutrial relocation large cities can provide scrap metal can replace pig iron
Will all factories move to new locations? Why? No Some firms or particular groups of industries tend to remain in an existing location (non- optimal sites) after the original factors for their location have weakened or disappeared. Sometimes, the locations were more favourable in the past than they are now. This is called industrial inertia.
Why do the firms stay in original locations? They dont move because there are still favourable factors of the present location. Can you list some?
Favourable factors of the present location Physical infrastructure, e.g. roads, water and electricity supplies, are present. Ancillary services are available. A pool of skilled labour is available. The firms need to be near to existing market. The firms need to maintain existing linkages with other firms (with long established business relations)
Why do the firms stay in original locations? Taking risks to move to new locations Possible problems encountered in new locations Can you list some?
Possible problems encountered in the new locations At the new sites, personal ties and linkages with the original industrial network may break down. At the new locations, the cost and time of training new labour are needed. There are risks and uncertainties in the new production environments. Knowledge about new regions is not so perfect. There are diseconomies of disinvestment, e.g. high cost will be involved in moving bulky capital equipment.
But what happens to other firms which do not move? 2 possible outcomes: Close down of factories urban decay Industrial inertia re-industrialization
How can industrial regions manage to survive? contraction of business downsizing the workforce closure of inefficient plants restructuring by adaptation of existing industries in situ, introducing more efficient production methods developing new industries/new products movement towards specialization of products