Presentation on theme: "Why Do Industries Have Different Distributions?"— Presentation transcript:
1Why Do Industries Have Different Distributions? Chapter 11 Key Issue 2Why Do Industries Have Different Distributions?
2Situation FactorsSituation factors involve decisions about industrial location that attempt to minimize transportation costs by considering raw material source(s) as well as the market(s).If the cost of transporting the inputs is greater than the cost of transporting the finished product, the best plant location is nearer to the inputs. Otherwise the best location for the factory will be closer to the consumers.
3Copper IndustryThe North American copper industry is a good example of locating near the raw material source.Copper concentration is a bulk-reducing industry; the final product weighs less than the inputs.Two-thirds of U.S. copper is mined in Arizona, so most of the concentration mills and smelters are also in Arizona.
4Copper Industry in North America Fig. 11-8: Copper mining, concentration, smelting, and refining are examples of bulk-reducing industries. Many are located near the copper mines in Arizona.
5Copper Mine in ArizonaThe Lavender Pit Copper Mine in Bisbee, Arizona operated between 1951 and 1974.
6Origin of Steel Industry Steelmaking is another bulk-reducing industry. Steel was made by the Bessemer process, invented in 1855, which combined iron ore and carbon at very high temperatures using coal to produce steel.By the beginning of the 20th century most large U.S. steel mills were located near the East and West coasts because iron ore was coming from other countries.
7Integrated Steel Mills Fig. 11-9: Integrated steel mills in the U.S. are clustered near the southern Great Lakes, which helped minimize transport costs of heavy raw materials.
8U.S. Steel IndustryToday the U.S. steel industry is located near major markets in minimills. It has become a footloose industry, which can locate virtually anywhere because the main input is scrap metal and is available almost everywhere.Today the U.S. steel industry takes advantage of the agglomeration economies, or sharing of services with other companies that are available at major markets.The agglomeration of companies can lead to the development of ancillary activities that surround and support large-scale industry.Deglomeration occurs when a firm leaves an agglomerated region to start in a distant, new place.However, according to Alfred Weber’s theory of industrial location or least cost theory, firms will locate where they can minimize transportation and labor costs as well as take advantage of agglomeration economies.
9U.S. Steel Mill (Gary, Indiana) The integrated steel mill of U.S. Steel in Gary, Indiana.
10Nucor Steel MinimillsFig : Minimills produce steel from scrap metal, and they are distributed around the country near local markets. Nucor is the largest minimill operator.
11Proximity to MarketsThe location of bulk-gaining industries is determined largely by the markets because they gain volume or weight during production.Most drink bottling industries are examples of bulk-gaining industries; empty cans or bottles are brought to the bottler, filled, and shipped to consumers.Single-market manufacturers are specialized, with only one or two customers, such as manufacturers of motor vehicle parts.Perishable-product industries such as fresh food and newspapers will usually locate near their markets.Transportation costs will decline with distance because loading and unloading costs are the greatest. The major modes of transportation are ship, rail, truck, and air.A break-of-bulk point is a place where transfer from one mode of transportation to another is possible.
12Location of Beer Breweries Fig : Beer brewing is a bulk-gaining industry that needs to be located near consumers. Breweries of the two largest brewers are located near major population centers.
13Chevrolet Assembly Plants, 1955 Fig a: In 1955, GM assembled identical Chevrolets at ten final assembly plants located near major population centers.
14Chevrolet Assembly Plants, 2007 Fig b: In 2007, GM was producing a wider variety of vehicles, and production of various models was spread through the interior of the country.
15Site Factors Site factors include labor, land, and capital. Labor-intensive industries are those in which the highest percentage of expenses are the cost of employees, such as textile and apparel production.Land, which includes natural resources, is a major site factor. For example, aluminum producers locate near dams to take advantage of hydroelectric power.The availability of capital is critical to the location of high-tech industries, such as those in California’s Silicon Valley. The distribution of industries in LDCs is also largely dependent on the ability to borrow money.
16Child Labor in Textile Mills Child labor was common in the textile industry, which was transformed in the Industrial Revolution. Many spools of thread could be spun simultaneously if they were connected to a steam engine.
17Cotton Yarn Production Fig a: Production of cotton yarn from fiber is clustered in major cotton growing countries, including the U.S., China, India, Pakistan, and Russia.
18Distribution of Cotton Yarn Production Fig b: Three-quarters of cotton yarn is produced in less developed countries.
19Chinese Textile MillFig c: Machine spinning spools of cotton at a textile mill in Zhengzhou, Henan Province, China.
20Woven Cotton Fabric Production Fig a: Production of woven cotton fabric is labor intensive and is likely to be located in LDCs. China and India account for over 75% of world production.
21Distribution of Woven Cotton Fabric Production Fig b: Over 80% of cotton fabric production is located in less developed countries.
22Cotton Factory in India Fig c: Cotton looms in a factory in India.
23Trouser ProductionFig a: Sewing cotton fabric into men’s and boys’ trousers is more likely to be located in developed countries, but much production now occurs in LDCs.
24Distribution of Trouser Production Fig b: The majority of trouser production is in MDCs, near customers.
25New York Garment District Fig c: Women sewing garments in the Garment District in New York.