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Presentation on theme: "ZACH MICHEL, JONATHAN SCISLOW JAMIE OTTMAR, WENXIAO ZENG HYBRID FORMULA CAR SD1115."— Presentation transcript:


2 PROBLEM: CRUDE OIL DEPENDENCY The United States is responsible for 25% of the worlds oil consumption Major contribution to pollution 1000 barrels of crude oil extracted every second Info from:

3 SOLUTION: HYBRID VEHICLES Electric vehicles are a greener alternative Inconvenience of charging Technology has come a long way Hybrid alternatives allow for less pollution while still having an IC engine

4 FORMULA HYBRID Formula Hybrid is a design and engineering challenge for undergraduate and graduate college and university students. They must design, build, and compete an open-wheel, single-seat, electric or plug-in hybrid-electric racecar. This car must conform to a formula which emphasizes drive train innovation and fuel efficiency in a high-performance application.

5 FORMULA HYBRID INTERNATIONAL COMPETITION The Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) established the Formula Hybrid competition in 2006, with the 1 st competition held in 2007 featuring only 6 universities As of December 6, 2011, 27 teams from 3 countries are registered to compete in the 2012 competition.

6 JUDGED EVENTS Dynamic Events Acceleration Runs (electric & unrestricted) – 75 points each AutoCross – 150 points Endurance Run – 400 Points Static Events Presentation – 100 points Design – 200 points

7 COMPETITION DESIGN CONSTRAINTS Design restrictions include: Each vehicle is allotted 19.5 Mega Joules of energy (Fuel and Accumulators combined) Teams cannot spend more than $7,200 on accumulators (batteries, super-capacitors, etc.) Other design constraints are also involved for safety and other reasons

8 DRIVETRAIN CONFIGURATION PARALLEL VS. SERIES Series Electric motor provides all power to the wheels. Power is received from batteries or a generator driven by a gas engine. Batteries may be recharged by generator and regenerative breaking. Advantages Simplest hybrid configuration Requires small IC engine Works well in stop-and-go conditions Disadvantages Requires larger battery capacity and electric motor. Expensive configuration

9 DRIVETRAIN CONFIGURATION PARALLEL VS. SERIES Gas engine and electric motor power the wheels. Engine is connected directly to wheels, eliminating inefficient energy conversion May use regenerative braking to charge batteries Advantages Requires smaller battery capacity Eliminates inefficient energy loss Works well in highway condition Disadvantages Inefficient in stop-and-go situations. Parallel

10 DRIVETRAIN CONFIGURATION PARALLEL VS. SERIES Combines advantages of series and parallel setup. Gas engine can directly drive wheels or be disconnected. Advantages Maximum efficiency Flexibility Disadvantages Computer system is much more complex. Requires large battery back and a generator, which results in a very expensive system Series-Parallel

11 3-PHASE AC INDUCTION MOTOR Power is supplied to rotor by electromagnetic induction Speed is easily controlled Simple motor setup High power availability Smooth power and control Generally have lowest cost among electric motors

12 AC – 15 ELECTRIC MOTOR Manufactured by HPEVS and purchased from Thunderstruck Motors


14 CURTIS 1238R MOTOR CONTROLLER Tennant offered to donate a motor controller The Curtis 1238R was the only controller which was able to handle the high current requirements Programmed using Vehicle Control Language Curtis 1311 Handheld programmer included

15 CURTIS 1238R CONTINUED The Curtis 1238R is able to operate in torque control mode Perfect for parallel hybrid configuration Designed for 72-96V systems 2 minute RMS current rating – 550A Meets IP65 environmental sealing standard


17 BATTERY CHEMISTRY Lithium-Ion Very reliable Can handle high amounts of current Ideal for powering electric motors Heavier than lithium-polymer Lithium-Polymer Can handle even more current than lithium-ion Lightweight Cheaper cells Less reliable Complex charging Unstable

18 LITHIUM-ION BATTERIES Rechargeable prismatic cells Reduces cost and complexity Safer than other lithium based batteries High energy density Handle high current Chose to go with LiFePO 4 chemistry

19 MOLECULAR STRUCTURE Molecular formula: LiFePO 4 Li has +1 valence charge Fe has +2 valence charge PO 4 has -3 valence charge Used as cathode material in lithium-ion batteries Inexpensive, non-toxic, and environmentally friendly Requires less intense charge monitoring Slightly lower energy density than other lithium ion chemistries

20 BATTERY COMPANIES/DISTRIBUTORS CONSIDERED Flux Power Thundersky Calib Power Valence Dow Kokam LifeBatt Evolve Electrics The Battery Shop

21 FLUX POWER 3.2V 40AH CELLS Current: 400 A Impulse (2 sec) 200 A Peak (10 sec) 120 A Continuous Voltage: 3.9 V Maximum 3.2 V Nominal 2.5 V Minimum These batteries can handle all the necessary current requirements for our electric motor, including the momentary initial 300 A discharge.

22 FLUX POWER 3.2V 40AH CELLS High energy density Ideal for Electric Vehicles Low internal impedance 100% factory tested Rigid plastic exterior Operating Temperature: -45 to +85 (Celsius) Expected >5000 cycle life at 70% discharge

23 DETERMINING BATTERY CAPACITY As previously stated, the competition allows each vehicle to have 19.5 Mega Joules of energy onboard. We chose 40Ah cells so the electric portion of total onboard energy is around 40%, allowing us to use more gas for the IC engine. Joules (J) = (voltage)(battery capacity)(.8)(3600) Our System: (72 V)(40 Ah)(.8)(3600) = MJ MJ/19.5 MJ = 42.5% Electric

24 BATTERY PERFORMANCE Able to hold charge well At a rate of 1C the batteries will last for over an hour 1C*40Ah = 40A At a rate of 3C they will last just under 20 minutes 3C*40Ah = 120A

25 CHARGER Delta-Q QuiQ Charger 1kW Unit 72V DC output Max of 100V DC Universal input ( AC) 12A charging current UL compliant Can be programmed for a wide variety of battery types

26 CHARGER CONTINUED Uses high efficiency, high frequency switching circuit Digital software control Housed in fully-sealed enclosure Can be used onboard vehicle Safety and reliability are a major design concern

27 ACCUMULATOR MONITORING SYSTEM Required in Formula Hybrid rules Must be active when car is running or charging Automatically take action to prevent conditions such as over charge and over temperature Disable HV system under conditions such as over voltage, under voltage, cell reversal, and over temperature

28 AMS CONTINUED Must remain disabled until manually reset (reset button must not be accessible to driver) Balancing is a mechanism to equalize state of charge or cell voltage Bimetallic thermal switches provide over temperature protection

29 BATTERY MANAGEMENT SYSTEM Lithiumate Lite Li-Ion BMS for EV conversions

30 BMS CONTINUED Lithiumate Lite Designed specifically for EV conversions Distributed: cell boards mounted on cells, single wire to adjacent cell boards For large packs: up to 160 cells (~ 500 V), in up to 8 banks Supports all cell form factors, and most Lithium chemistries Protects cells from over current, under/over voltage, under/over temperature Compatible with most chargers and most motor drivers

31 BMS CONTINUED Measurement Measures and reports the cell voltages and temperatures in up to 8 banks of cells in a battery pack Measures and reports the battery pack current (bidirectional load current up to 900 A; charger current up to 30 A)

32 BMS CONTINUED Evaluation Calculates and reports the State Of Charge of the battery pack Management Balances the pack Passive balancing Voltage remains balanced for each cell

33 BMS CONTINUED Protection Turns off charger if any cell voltage exceeds a maximum, or the charging current is excessive Requests a reduction of motor drive if the battery is nearly empty Requests that motor controller be turned off if any cell voltage drops below a minimum, or the discharging current is excessive

34 BMS CONTINUED Protection Disables charging and/or discharging if any cell's temperature is outside a specified range Disables charging and discharging if any cell board or bank stops reporting Prevents driving off when the vehicle is still plugged into the AC outlet


36 ELECTRICAL SYSTEM OVERVIEW Three-Phase AC Induction Electric Motor HPEVs AC-15 Motor Controller Curtis 1238R Handheld Programmer Curtis V LiFePO4 Battery Cells Flux Power 72V Charger Delta-Q Lithiumate Lite Battery Management System Elithion

37 HPEVs AC-15 Electric Motor was ordered from Thunderstruck Motors This is in and ready to use Curtis 1238R Motor Controller and 1311 handheld programmer donated by Tennant These are in and ready to use PROJECT STATUS

38 24 3.2V LiFePO4 Cells on order from Flux Power These should be in and ready to use early next semester DeltaQ 72V charger on order from Flux Power This should be in and ready to use early next semester PROJECT STATUS CONTINUED

39 Lithiumate Lite Battery Management system on order from Elithion This should be in and ready to use early next semester

40 TASKS REMAINING Wait for batteries to come in Get additional wiring etc. necessary Get the Battery Management System working Connect all of the main components Get the motor running Program the motor Get everything onboard a test vehicle (if we do bench testing first) Make adjustments as necessary

41 TIMELINE Task Estimated Date of Completion Wait for batteries Hopefully these will be in by the start of the semester Get additional wiring, etc.End of January Finish work on BMSEnd of February Connect everything upEnd of March Have motor runningEnd of April Program motor and get everything onboard the vehicle End of May Make adjustments as necessary Ongoing until the end of the semester Everything will be pushed back if batteries take longer to come (this will be beyond our control) Its very difficult to estimate how long each part will take since we havent been able to work with the components yet Gave a good amount of time for each part while ensuring the project is finished Tasks may take more or less time Getting it onboard a vehicle will depend on the Mechanical Engineering team No tasks are split up individually since we can and will work as a team on every aspect

42 UPDATED BUDGET PartCost per unitQuantityTotal CostNotes Electric Motor Controller – Curtis 1238R $1,50010 (Donated) Donated by Bob Erko from Tennant Curtis 1311 Motor Controller Programmer $75510 (Donated) Also donated by Bob Erko from Tennant AC Induction Motor (AC-15) $1,3501 Purchased from Thunderstruck Motors On ME budget Flux Power 3.2V 40Ah Cells $ $1, Purchased direct from Flux Power Delta-Q 72V 1kW Charger $ Also purchased from Flux Power eLithion Lithiumate Lite Battery Management System $4811 Purchased through Miscellaneous Wiring/Emergency Switches/Safety ~300.00NA~ We will need various additional parts for the electrical system.

43 FINANCIAL OUTLOOK Our Senior Design budget$400 Remaining Mechanical Engineering Senior Design Team budget $1017 Donation from Phoenix International$2500 Batteries, Charger, and BMS Note: Tax and shipping not included -$ TOTAL BUDGET REMAINING$ Items still needed to be purchased Note: This only includes electrical and the budget will be used for the whole project as needed ~$300

44 SUMMARY SLIDE We have made very good progress Despite a limited budget and difficulties in dealing with companies we have gotten all of the major components required Batteries will be ordered and in by next semester Wont be in competition until next year due to mechanical problems Our design requirements remain unchanged On track to finish our portion of the overall project

45 IMAGE CREDIT five-electric-vehicle-developments.jpg _front.JPG/250px-Toyota_Prius_III_ _front.JPG Image from Tennant presentation

46 IMAGE CREDIT CONTINUED Image from Mechanical Engineering design team png 5_QuiQ_Data_Sheet_compact.pdf



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