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Who killed the electric car? (is it really dead???) Ramon Sanchez. Harvard University December 19, 2007.

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Presentation on theme: "Who killed the electric car? (is it really dead???) Ramon Sanchez. Harvard University December 19, 2007."— Presentation transcript:

1 Who killed the electric car? (is it really dead???) Ramon Sanchez. Harvard University December 19, 2007

2 Ramon Sanchez Harvard University Slide # 2 Outline Early history of motor vehicles Early history of motor vehicles Description of gasoline engines Description of gasoline engines Description of diesel engines Description of diesel engines Electric engines in motor vehicles Electric engines in motor vehicles

3 Ramon Sanchez Harvard University Slide # 3 Outline Hybrid technologies Hybrid technologies Evolution of battery technologies Evolution of battery technologies How the electric car was killed (and why) How the electric car was killed (and why)

4 Ramon Sanchez Harvard University Slide # 4 Early History of Cars 1769, the very first car was built by Nicolas Cugnot 1769, the very first car was built by Nicolas Cugnot 1807, the very first internal combustion engine was built by Francois Isaac de Rivaz 1807, the very first internal combustion engine was built by Francois Isaac de Rivaz 1860, the first successful two stroke internal combustion engine was patented by Joseph Etiene Lenoir 1860, the first successful two stroke internal combustion engine was patented by Joseph Etiene Lenoir

5 Ramon Sanchez Harvard University Slide # 5 Early History of Cars 1862, the first four stroke Otto Engine (gasoline) was invented 1865, Car development is delayed by the Locomotives on Highways (Red Flag Act) 1865, Car development is delayed by the Locomotives on Highways (Red Flag Act) 1870, the first electric car was developed by David Salomon 1870, the first electric car was developed by David Salomon 1892, the first direct compression engine was developed by Rudolph Diesel 1892, the first direct compression engine was developed by Rudolph Diesel

6 Ramon Sanchez Harvard University Slide # 6 N. A.Otto ( ), from Holzhausen, Germany, developed the four-stroke cycle engine in a series of experiments dating from Together with Eugen Langen he founded the first engine company - "N.A.Otto & Cie". In 1867 they won a gold medal at the Paris Exposition. The Otto Cycle Spark-ignition Engine Nicolaus August Otto

7 Ramon Sanchez Harvard University Slide # 7 An 1876 Version of Ottos Engine

8 Ramon Sanchez Harvard University Slide # 8 Parts of the Spark-ignition Engine IV = intake valve SP = spark plug EV = exhaust valve PR = piston ring P = piston CR = connecting rod CS = crank shaft

9 Ramon Sanchez Harvard University Slide # 9 The Otto Cycle - intake stroke

10 Ramon Sanchez Harvard University Slide # 10 The Diesel Cycle Compression-ignition Engine Dr.Rudolf Diesel After studying the internal combustion engines developed by Nikolaus Otto, Diesel conceived of an engine that would approach the thermodynamic limit established by Sadi Carnot in If the fuel in a cylinder could be expanded at constant pressure, it could get closer to Carnot's limit. He patented the concept in 1892, while working at the firm of Carl von Linde in Berlin. b 1858 Paris,. Educated at Munich Polytechnic Inst.. d1913, English Channel

11 Ramon Sanchez Harvard University Slide # 11 Diesel Engine Cycle

12 Ramon Sanchez Harvard University Slide # 12 Modern Reciprocating Engine

13 Ramon Sanchez Harvard University Slide # 13 Diesel fuel has a higher energy density than gasoline. On average, a gallon of Diesel fuel contains approximately 155x10 6 joules (147,000 BTUs), while a gallon of gasoline contains 132x10 6 joules (125,000 BTUs). This, combined with the improved efficiency of Diesel engines, explains why Diesel engines get better mileage than equivalent gasoline engines (30-40 % better) Diesel versus Gasoline The Energy Advantage

14 Ramon Sanchez Harvard University Slide # 14 Electric Vehicles Zero Emissions Electric Vehicles (EV) generate no pollutants Source: Ford Motor Company

15 Ramon Sanchez Harvard University Slide # 15 Electric Vehicles- First Death Electric and internal combustion engine vehicles competed in the late 19 th Century Markets, however the cheap prices of petroleum, large weight of batteries and inefficiencies to generate and distribute electricity caused the first death of the electric car in the early 20 th Century. Electric vehicles were preferred by women because no additional help was needed to crank the engine to start the engine (this fact led to the development of the electric starting motor)

16 Ramon Sanchez Harvard University Slide # 16 Inefficiencies Drag Down Conventional Vehicle MPG Fuel Transmission Engine 22%74% Vehicle Characteristics Coeff/Drag = 0.32 Frontal Area = 2.0 m^2 Coeff/Rolling Resist = Mass = 3500 lb Conventional Vehicle: 28 mpg Source: U.S. EPA Office of Mobile Sources

17 Ramon Sanchez Harvard University Slide # 17 Motor Vehicle Power Losses Only about 15% of the energy in the fuel you put in your gas tank gets used to move your car down the road or run useful accessories like air conditioning or power steering. The rest of the energy is lost. Because of this the potential to improve fuel economy with advanced technologies is enormous Source: EPA / DOE

18 Ramon Sanchez Harvard University Slide # 18 Hybrid Vehicles Cmb - Miles per gallon (combined), based on 55% city and 45% highway miles A hybrid differs from an all-Electric Vehicle in that it uses an internal combustion engine to generate electricity for its electric motor. As a result, hybrid vehicles can be designed to never need recharging from an external source of electricity. Their need for batteries can also be reduced to little more than needed for a typical gasoline vehicle.

19 Ramon Sanchez Harvard University Slide # 19 Hybrid Power train Challenges Engine Fuel Transmission Rechargeable Energy System Optimize regenerative braking while maintaining safety Minimize mechanical efficiency losses Minimize electrical efficiency losses Source: U.S. EPA Office of Mobile Sources

20 Ramon Sanchez Harvard University Slide # 20 Hybrid Fuel Efficiency Potential Perfect Hybrid with High Efficiency Engine: 141 mpg 33% 99% Vehicle Characteristics Drag Coefficient = 0.2 Frontal Area = 2.0 m^2 Coeff/Rolling Resist = Mass = 3500 lb Engine Fuel Transmission Rechargeable Energy System Source: U.S. EPA Office of Mobile Sources

21 Ramon Sanchez Harvard University Slide # 21 How Hybrid Electric Vehicles Work A hybrid electric vehicle combines the best features of internal combustion engines and electric motors. There are two basic types of hybrid vehicles: series and parallel. A hybrid electric vehicle combines the best features of internal combustion engines and electric motors. There are two basic types of hybrid vehicles: series and parallel. In a series hybrid configuration, the engine generates electricity for the battery pack which supplies the electric motor. There is no mechanical connection between the engine and the wheels. The engine, sized for an average load and operated at an optimum rate, is much smaller than the engine of a conventional vehicle of equal performance and produces less pollution. In a series hybrid configuration, the engine generates electricity for the battery pack which supplies the electric motor. There is no mechanical connection between the engine and the wheels. The engine, sized for an average load and operated at an optimum rate, is much smaller than the engine of a conventional vehicle of equal performance and produces less pollution.

22 Ramon Sanchez Harvard University Slide # 22 How Hybrid Electric Vehicles Work In a parallel hybrid design, both the engine and the electric motor are connected to the wheels, which means that the engine can be sized for cruising and the electric motor used to assist with acceleration or hill climbing. In a parallel hybrid design, both the engine and the electric motor are connected to the wheels, which means that the engine can be sized for cruising and the electric motor used to assist with acceleration or hill climbing. In both designs, energy that would otherwise be wasted in braking, can be recaptured and used to drive a generator to produce electricity. The electricity produced by regenerative braking systems is stored in the hybrid's battery system for future use. In stop-and-go city driving generating electricity while braking can dramatically improve overall fuel economy. In both designs, energy that would otherwise be wasted in braking, can be recaptured and used to drive a generator to produce electricity. The electricity produced by regenerative braking systems is stored in the hybrid's battery system for future use. In stop-and-go city driving generating electricity while braking can dramatically improve overall fuel economy.

23 Ramon Sanchez Harvard University Slide # 23 Hybrid Vehicle Configurations "Parallel" or "Power Assist" Hybrid Vehicle Configuration "Series" or "Range Extender" Hybrid Vehicle Configuration

24 Ramon Sanchez Harvard University Slide # 24 Hybrid Series Configuration Benefits of a series configuration over a parallel configuration are: The engine never idles, which reduces vehicle emissions The engine never idles, which reduces vehicle emissions The engine drives a generator to run at optimum performance The engine drives a generator to run at optimum performance Allows a variety of options when mounting engine and vehicle components Allows a variety of options when mounting engine and vehicle components Some series hybrids do not need a transmission Some series hybrids do not need a transmission "Series" or "Range Extender" Hybrid Vehicle Configuration

25 Ramon Sanchez Harvard University Slide # 25 Hybrid Parallel Configuration "Parallel" or "Power Assist" Hybrid Vehicle Configuration Benefits of a parallel configuration versus a series configuration: The vehicle has more power because both the engine and the motor supply power simultaneously The vehicle has more power because both the engine and the motor supply power simultaneously Most parallel vehicles do not need a generator Most parallel vehicles do not need a generator The power is directly coupled to the road, thus, it can be more efficient The power is directly coupled to the road, thus, it can be more efficient

26 Ramon Sanchez Harvard University Slide # 26 Energy Use – Conventional Vehicle

27 Ramon Sanchez Harvard University Slide # 27 Energy Use – Hybrid Vehicle

28 Ramon Sanchez Harvard University Slide # 28 Plug-in Hybrid Vehicle It is an electric vehicle that uses Lithium- ion technology batteries to achieve an autonomy of 120 miles per charge. If the user would like to drive for longer distances, it would activate the internal combustion engine and the car would become a hybrid vehicle. Under just electric operation it would give you an equivalent of 165 miles/gallon and in the hybrid operation you would get 45 miles/gallon. It takes 8 to 6 hours to recharge the battery, but it could potentially be used as a supplemental energy source for your home after a long drive, it may be good for 98 % of non- heavy duty applications.

29 Ramon Sanchez Harvard University Slide # 29 Who killed the electric vehicle? The available battery technology??? Type of Battery Power/Weight Discharge efficiency Cycle durability Power $ Toxicity Lead – Acid 180 W/kg % 500 – 800 cycles $7 – 18 USD/Wh High Nickel Cadmium 150 W/kg % 2000 cycles $12 USD/Wh High Nickel Metal Hydride 250 – 1000 W/kg 66 % 500 – 1000 cycles $1.37 USD/Wh Moderate - Low Lithium-ion 1800 W/kg 99.9% 1200 cycles $ 2.8 – 5 USD/Wh Moderate - Low Lithium- ion polymer 2800 W/kg 99.8% 1000 cycles $2.8 – 5 USD/Wh Moderate - Low Zinc – Air Battery Experimental, Not available Molten Salt Battery Experimental, Not available

30 Ramon Sanchez Harvard University Slide # 30 Who killed the electric vehicle? Economic interests - car manufacturers??? Estimated revenues for engine spare parts $5 billion USD/year VS

31 Ramon Sanchez Harvard University Slide # 31 Who killed the electric vehicle? Economic interests - car manufacturers??? Estimated revenues for breaking spare parts $1 billion USD/year VS

32 Ramon Sanchez Harvard University Slide # 32 Who killed the electric vehicle? Us – Market Driven Features??? VS

33 Ramon Sanchez Harvard University Slide # 33 Chronology of an attempted technological assassination Inside Information +

34 Ramon Sanchez Harvard University Slide # 34 Is the electric car really death? New Electric Cars 2008 The Tesla Roadster, the first 500 of which are scheduled for delivery in early 2008 uses Li-Ion batteries to achieve 245 miles per charge, while also capable of going 0-60 in under 4 seconds.Tesla RoadsterLi-Ion The Toyota RAV4 EV was powered by twenty- four 12 volt batteries, with an operational cost equivalent of over 165 miles per gallon at 2005 US gasoline prices.Toyota RAV4 EV

35 Ramon Sanchez Harvard University Slide # 35 Is the electric car really death? New Electric Cars 2010 The Saturn Vue Green Line, is a plug-in hybrid wigh Lithium-ion batteries that would give an equivalent energy efficiency of 70 mpg under normal operation. Mass production for this vehicle is scheduled to start in 2010 (so, it would be the 2011 Model Year) The GM Volt, is a plug-in hybrid with Lithium-ion batteries that would give an energy efficiency equivalent to 150 mpg with a range of 640 miles. It is scheduled to go into production in 2010 (2011 Model Year)

36 Ramon Sanchez Harvard University Slide # 36 Is the electric car really death?

37 Ramon Sanchez Harvard University Slide # 37 An example of the future: fuel cell vehicle It has no mobile parts in its engine, it gets its energy from the reaction of Hydrogen and Oxygen. The issue, how do you get the hydrogen???

38 Ramon Sanchez Harvard University Slide # 38 Questions??

39 Ramon Sanchez Harvard University Slide # 39 Thank you!!!


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