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Chapter 7b Introduction to the Endocrine System. Simple Endocrine Reflex: Parathyroid Hormone Figure 7-10 Bone and kidney Low plasma [ Ca 2+ ] Plasma.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 7b Introduction to the Endocrine System. Simple Endocrine Reflex: Parathyroid Hormone Figure 7-10 Bone and kidney Low plasma [ Ca 2+ ] Plasma."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 7b Introduction to the Endocrine System

2 Simple Endocrine Reflex: Parathyroid Hormone Figure 7-10 Bone and kidney Low plasma [ Ca 2+ ] Plasma [ Ca 2+ ] Bone resorption Kidney reabsorption of calcium Parathyroid cell Parathyroid hormone Production of calcitriol leads to intestinal absorption of Ca 2+ Negative feedback

3 Neurohormones: Major Groups Adrenal medulla Catecholamines Hypothalamus Anterior pituitary Posterior pituitary

4 Endocrine Control Three levels Hypothalamic stimulationfrom CNS Pituitary stimulationfrom hypothalamic trophic hormones Releasing factors or Neurohormones Endocrine gland stimulationfrom pituitary trophic hormones Stimulate other hormones

5 Negative Feedback Controls Figure 7-14

6 Control Pathway for Cortisol Secretion Figure 7-15

7 IGFs GH ANTERIOR PITUITARY GHRH HYPOTHALAMUS Bone and soft tissue Liver GH cells in anterior pituitary Growth Hypothalamus Figure 7-17 A Complex Endocrine Pathway Growth hormone is an example of a complex endocrine pathway

8 The Pituitary Gland Anatomy Figure 7-11

9 The Pituitary Gland: Anterior Figure 7-13 HYPOTHALAMIC HORMONES ANTERIOR PITUITARY HORMONES NONENDOCRINE TARGETS ENDOCRINE TARGETS AND THE HORMONES THEY SECRETE Somatostatin GHRH* GnRH Portal system Anterior pituitary FSHLH Neurons in hypothalamus secreting trophic hormones To target tissues GH Endocrine cells of the gonads Endocrine cells Many tissues Germ cells of the gonads Thyroid gland Thyroid hormones Adrenal cortex Cortisol Liver IGFs Androgens Estrogens, progesterone PRFs TRH CRH TSH ACTH Prolactin Breast Dopamine* (Gonadotropins) GTFLAP

10 Endocrine cells release their hormones into the second set of capillaries for distribution to the rest of the body. Neurons synthesizing trophic hormones release them into capillaries of the portal system. Portal vessels carry the trophic hormones directly to the anterior pituitary. Mammary glandsThyroid glandAdrenal cortexGonads OvaryTestis Musculoskeletal system HYPOTHALAMUS Veins Artery ANTERIOR PITUITARY POSTERIOR PITUITARY Capillary bed TO TARGET ORGANS Prolactin Gonadotropins (LH & FSH) TSH GHACTH The Hypothalamic-Hypophyseal Portal System Figure 7-16

11 The Pituitary Gland: Posterior Posterior pituitary Vasopressin (ADH) Oxytoci n Figure 7-12 HYPOTHALAMUS Vein POSTERIOR PITUITARY Vesicles are transported down the cell. Vesicles containing hormone are stored in posterior pituitary. Hormones are released into blood. Hormone is made and packaged in cell body of neuron

12 The Pituitary Gland: Posterior Figure 7-12, step 1 HYPOTHALAMUS POSTERIOR PITUITARY Hormone is made and packaged in cell body of neuron. 1

13 The Pituitary Gland: Posterior Figure 7-12, steps 1–2 HYPOTHALAMUS POSTERIOR PITUITARY Vesicles are transported down the cell. Hormone is made and packaged in cell body of neuron. 1 2

14 The Pituitary Gland: Posterior Figure 7-12, steps 1–3 HYPOTHALAMUS POSTERIOR PITUITARY Vesicles are transported down the cell. Vesicles containing hormone are stored in posterior pituitary. Hormone is made and packaged in cell body of neuron

15 The Pituitary Gland: Posterior Figure 7-12, steps 1–4 HYPOTHALAMUS Vein POSTERIOR PITUITARY Vesicles are transported down the cell. Vesicles containing hormone are stored in posterior pituitary. Hormones are released into blood. Hormone is made and packaged in cell body of neuron

16 The Pituitary Gland: Posterior Figure 7-12 HYPOTHALAMUS Vein POSTERIOR PITUITARY Vesicles are transported down the cell. Vesicles containing hormone are stored in posterior pituitary. Hormones are released into blood. Hormone is made and packaged in cell body of neuron

17 Hormone Interactions Synergism Multiple stimulimore than additive = 3 Permissiveness Need second hormone to get full expression Antagonism Glucagons oppose insulin

18 Example of Synergism Figure 7-18 Glucagon + Epinephrine + Cortisol Glucagon + Epinephrine Epinephrine Glucagon Cortisol

19 Endocrine Pathologies Figure 7-19

20 Endocrine Pathologies Hypersecretion: excess hormone Tumors or cancer Autoimmune Graves diseasethyroxin Hyposecretion: deficient hormone Goiterthyroxin Low Iodine Diabetes melitus type Iinsulin

21 Goiter

22 Pathologies: Abnormal Receptors Downregulation Hyperinsulinemia Transduction abnormalities Testicular feminization syndrome Pseudohypothyroidism Abnormalities of control mechanisms

23 Primary and Secondary Pathologies Figure 7-20

24 Stress Pathologies: Hypocortisolism Figure 7-21 Cortisol Symptoms of deficiency Symptoms of deficiency Cortisol ACTH CRH Anterior pituitary Adrenal cortex (a) Hyposecretion from damage to the pituitary (b) Hyposecretion from atrophy of the adrenal cortex Hypothalamus

25 Pineal Gland and Melatonin Influences body clock and antioxidant activity Other roles need research SAAD and sexual behavior

26 Pineal Gland and Melatonin Figure 7-22 (1 of 3) Thalamus Corpus callosum The pineal gland

27 Pineal Gland and Melatonin Figure 7-22 (2 of 3)

28 Pineal Gland and Melatonin Figure 7-22 (3 of 3)

29 Summary Introduction to hormones Classifications and features of hormones Regulation controlled by the endocrine and nervous systems Interactions of hormones with other hormones Endocrine pathologies


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