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Endocrine Control Chapter 32. An Orchestra of Hormones Hormones influence the growth, development, and reproductive cycles of nearly all animals They.

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Presentation on theme: "Endocrine Control Chapter 32. An Orchestra of Hormones Hormones influence the growth, development, and reproductive cycles of nearly all animals They."— Presentation transcript:

1 Endocrine Control Chapter 32

2 An Orchestra of Hormones Hormones influence the growth, development, and reproductive cycles of nearly all animals They influence behavior, physical appearance, and well-being

3 Hormones Secreted by endocrine glands, endocrine cells, and certain neurons Animal hormones travel through the bloodstream to nonadjacent target cells

4 Other Signaling Molecules Neurotransmitters Local signaling molecules Pheromones

5 Endocrine System Main Sources Pituitary gland Adrenal glands Thyroid gland Parathyroid glands Pineal gland Thymus gland

6 Fig. 32.2b, p. 523 HYPOTHALAMUS PITUITARY GLAND ADRENAL GLANDS OVARIES TESTES PINEAL GLAND THYROID GLAND PARATHYROID GLANDS THYMUS GLAND PANCREATIC ISLETS

7 Responses to Hormones Vary Different hormones activate different responses in the same target cell Not all types of cells respond to a particular hormone

8 Two Main Hormone Types Steroid hormones –Derived from cholesterol –Estrogens, progestins, androgens (such as testosterone), cortisol, aldosterone Peptide hormones –Peptides, proteins, or glycoproteins –Glucagon, ADH, oxytocin, TRH, insulin, somatotropin, prolactin, FSH, LH, TSH

9 Steroid Hormone Action Most diffuse across the plasma membrane and bind to a receptor Hormone-receptor complex acts in nucleus to inhibit or enhance transcription (protein synthesis)

10 Steroid Hormones receptor hormone-receptor complex gene product hormone Most diffuse across the plasma membrane and bind to a receptor Hormone-receptor complex acts in nucleus to inhibit or enhance transcription

11 Protein Hormone Hormone binds to a receptor at cell surface Binding triggers a change in activity of enzymes inside the cell glucagon receptor cyclic AMP+ P i ATP cAMP activates protein kinase A glucagon Protein kinase A converts phosphorylase kinase to active form and inhibits an enzyme required for glucagon synthesis.

12 The Hypothalamus Region in the brain Contains hormone-secreting cells Interacts with pituitary hypothalamus pituitary gland

13 Fig. 32.2a, p. 522 HYPOTHALAMUS PITUITARY GLAND anterior lobeposterior lobe bone at base of cranial cavity

14 Pituitary Gland Two lobes –Posterior lobe (neurohypophysis) stores and secretes hormones that were synthesized in the hypothalamus –Anterior lobe (adenohypophysis) produces and secretes its own hormones

15 Posterior Lobe Antidiuretic hormone (ADH ) Oxytocin (OCT) cell body in hypothalmus axons to the general circulation

16 Fig. 32.5, p. 527 POSTERIOR LOBE OF PITUITARY kidney tubules mammary glands smooth muscle in wall of the uterus ADH oxytocin cell body in hypothalmus axons to the general circulation

17 Anterior Pituitary ACTH TSH FSH LH PRL STH

18 Fig. 32.6, p. 527 ANTERIOR LOBE OF PITUITARY mammary glands adrenal cortex thyroidgonads growth- promoting effects on most cells ACTH PRL FSHLH both act on: TSH STH (GH) Capillary bed at base of hypothalmus Cell bodies secrete releasing and inhibiting hormones Capillary bed in anterior pituitary

19 Feedback Mechanisms Negative feedback –An increase in concentration of a hormone triggers activities that inhibit further secretion Positive feedback –An increase in concentration of a hormone triggers activities that stimulate further secretion

20 Control of Cortisol Secretion (1) Hypothalamus senses decline in glucose and secretes a releasing hormone (CRH) CRH stimulates anterior pituitary to secrete ACTH ACTH acts on the adrenal cortex to stimulate cortisol secretion

21 Control of Cortisol Secretion (2) Cortisol secretion –Inhibits blood glucose uptake by muscle and other tissues –Causes breakdown of proteins to amino acids and conversion to glucose –Causes degradation of adipose tissue to fatty acids for use as energy source

22 Control of Cortisol Secretion (3) Decrease in glucose uptake and release of glucose from protein breakdown causes blood glucose level to rise Hypothalamus and anterior pituitary detect the increase and decrease secretion of CRH and ACTH Adrenal cortex decreases cortisol secretion

23 Thyroid Gland Disorders Goiter Hyperthyroidism Hypothyroidism

24 Feedback Control of Ovaries Pituitary produces hormones (LH, FSH) that stimulate egg maturation and ovulation in the ovary They also stimulate ovary to produce progesterone and estrogen After ovulation, rising levels of these hormones inhibit further secretion of LH and FSH

25 Control of Glucose Metabolism insulin Glucose rises Glucose falls Glucose is absorbed Cells use glucose glucagon Glycogen to glucose Glucose uptake Glucose to glycogen

26 Diabetes Mellitis Disease in which excess glucose accumulates in blood, then urine Effects include –Excessive urination –Constant thirst –Weight loss –Ketone formation and acid-base imbalances

27 Two Types of Diabetes Type 1 Auto-immune disease Usually appears in childhood Treated with insulin injections Type 2 Target cells dont respond Usually appears in adults Treated with diet, drugs


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