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© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 18-7 The Hypophyseal Portal System and the Blood Supply to the Pituitary Gland Supraoptic nuclei Paraventricular.

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Presentation on theme: "© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 18-7 The Hypophyseal Portal System and the Blood Supply to the Pituitary Gland Supraoptic nuclei Paraventricular."— Presentation transcript:

1 © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 18-7 The Hypophyseal Portal System and the Blood Supply to the Pituitary Gland Supraoptic nuclei Paraventricular nuclei Neurosecretory neurons HYPOTHALAMUS MEDIAN EMINENCE Optic chiasm Capillary beds ANTERIOR LOBE OF PITUITARY GLAND Mamillary body Superior hypophyseal artery Infundibulum Portal vessels Inferior hypophyseal artery POSTERIOR LOBE OF PITUITARY GLAND Endocrine cells Hypophyseal veins Hypothalamus: the master gland p. 605

2 © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 18-8a Feedback Control of Endocrine Secretion Endocrine target organ Hormone 2 (from target organ) TRH CRH GnRH TSH ACTH FSH LH Thyroid gland Adrenal cortex Ovaries Testes Thyroid hormones Gluco- corticoids Inhibin Estrogens Progestins Estrogens Androgens Releasing hormone (RH) Hormone 1 (from pituitary) Ovaries Testes Negative feedback Hypothalamus RH Pituitary gland Anterior lobe Hormone 1 Endocrine organ Hormone 2 Target cells KEY Stimulation Inhibition p. 606

3 © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 18-8b Feedback Control of Endocrine Secretion Stimulates mammary glands Liver Epithelia, adipose tissue, liver Stimulates growth of skeletal muscle, cartilage, and many other tissues Stimulation Inhibition Stimulation Inhibition Anterior lobe Anterior lobe Somatomedins GH–IH GH–RH GH PRL PRF PIH p. 606

4 © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 18-9 Pituitary Hormones and Their Targets Inhibin Progesterone Estrogen Testosterone Inhibin Thyroid hormones (T 3, T 4 ) Glucocorticoids (cortisol, corticosterone) Epinephrine and norepinephrine Adrenal gland Adrenal medulla Adrenal cortex Thyroid gland Bone, muscle, other tissues Mammary glands Testes of male Ovaries of female Melanocytes (uncertain significance in healthy adults) Somatomedins Liver MSH LH FSH PRL GH TSH ACTH Anterior lobe of pituitary gland ACTH TSH GH PRL FSH LH MSH OXT ADH Adrenocorticotropic hormone Thyroid-stimulating hormone Growth hormone Prolactin Follicle-stimulating hormone Luteinizing hormone Melanoctye-stimulating hormone Antidiuretic hormone Oxytocin KEY TO PITUITARY HORMONES: Regulatory hormones are released into the hypophyseal portal system for delivery to the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland Indirect Control through Release of Regulatory Hormones Direct Control by Nervous System Hypothalamus p. 609

5 © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 18-9 Pituitary Hormones and Their Targets Females: Uterine smooth muscle and mammary glands Males: Smooth muscle in ductus deferens and prostate gland Kidneys ADH OXT Posterior lobe of pituitary gland ACTH TSH GH PRL FSH LH MSH OXT ADH Adrenocorticotropic hormone Thyroid-stimulating hormone Growth hormone Prolactin Follicle-stimulating hormone Luteinizing hormone Melanoctye-stimulating hormone Antidiuretic hormone Oxytocin KEY TO PITUITARY HORMONES: Direct Release of Hormones Sensory stimulation Osmoreceptor stimulation p. 609

6 Hypothalamus: the master gland p. 619 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.

7 Figure 18-10a The Thyroid Gland Hyoid bone Superior thyroid artery Thyroid cartilage of larynx Superior thyroid vein Common carotid artery Right lobe of thyroid gland Middle thyroid vein Thyrocervical trunk Trachea Internal jugular vein Cricoid cartilage of larynx Left lobe of thyroid gland Isthmus of thyroid gland Inferior thyroid artery Inferior thyroid veins Outline of clavicle Outline of sternum Location and anatomy of the thyroid gland p. 611

8 © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 18-10c The Thyroid Gland LM  260 Follicles of the thyroid gland Thyroid follicle Capillary Thyroid follicle Capsule Follicle cavities C cell Cuboidal epithelium of follicle Thyroglobulin stored in colloid of follicle Histological details of the thyroid gland showing thyroid follicles and both of the cell types in the follicular epithelium ATLAS: Plate 18c p. 611

9 © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 18-11a The Thyroid Follicles Follicle cavity Thyroglobulin (contains T 3 and T 4 ) FOLLICLE CAVITY Endocytosis Lysosomal digestion Thyroglobulin Other amino acids Tyrosine Diffusion TSH- sensitive ion pump FOLLICLE CELL CAPILLARY Iodide (I – ) T 4 & T 3 TBG, transthryretin, or albumin The synthesis, storage, and secretion of thyroid hormones. Iodide (I + ) T4T4 T3T3 p. 612

10 © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 18-11b The Thyroid Follicles The regulation of thyroid secretion Homeostasis Disturbed HOMEOSTASIS Homeostasis Restored Thyroid follicles release T 3 and T 4 Thyroid gland TSH Anterior lobe Pituitary gland Hypothalamus releases TRH TRH Anterior lobe Decreased T 3 and T 4 concentrations in blood or low body temperature Normal T 3 and T 4 concentrations, normal body temperature Increased T 3 and T 4 concentrations in blood p. 612

11 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. p.601

12 The Thyroid Gland Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. p. 613

13 © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 18-10c The Thyroid Gland LM  260 Follicles of the thyroid gland Thyroid follicle Capillary Thyroid follicle Capsule Follicle cavities C cell Cuboidal epithelium of follicle Thyroglobulin stored in colloid of follicle Histological details of the thyroid gland showing thyroid follicles and both of the cell types in the follicular epithelium ATLAS: Plate 18c p. 611

14 © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 18-12a The Parathyroid Glands Left lobe of thyroid gland Parathyroid glands Posterior view of the thyroid gland showing the parathyroid glands. p. 614

15 © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 18-12c The Parathyroid Glands Parathyroid gland cells Parathyroid cells and oxyphil cells Oxyphil cells Parathyroid (chief) cells LM  600 p. 614

16 © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 18-13 The Homeostatic Regulation of Calcium Ion Concentrations Increased excretion of calcium by kidneys Calcium deposition in bone HOMEOSTASIS RESTORED Blood calcium levels decline Thyroid gland produces calcitonin Rising levels of blood calcium HOMEOSTASIS DISTURBED Rising calcium levels in blood HOMEOSTASIS Normal blood calcium levels (8.5–11 mg/dL) p. 615

17 © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 18-13 The Homeostatic Regulation of Calcium Ion Concentrations HOMEOSTASIS Normal blood calcium levels (8.5–11 mg/dL) HOMEOSTASIS RESTORED Blood calcium levels increase HOMEOSTASIS DISTURBED Falling calcium levels in blood Falling levels of blood calcium Parathyroid glands secrete parathyroid hormone (PTH) Increased reabsorption of calcium by kidneys Calcium release from bone Increased calcitriol production causes Ca 2+ absorption by digestive system p. 615

18 © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 18-15 The Pineal Gland Pineal gland LM  450 Pinealocytes p. 619

19 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.


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