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The Endocrine System Chp. 6 Primary endocrine organs: main function is to secrete hormone(s) Secondary endocrine organs: secrete hormones as a secondary.

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Presentation on theme: "The Endocrine System Chp. 6 Primary endocrine organs: main function is to secrete hormone(s) Secondary endocrine organs: secrete hormones as a secondary."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Endocrine System Chp. 6 Primary endocrine organs: main function is to secrete hormone(s) Secondary endocrine organs: secrete hormones as a secondary function

2 Primary endocrine organs Hypothalamus and pituitary gland secrete hormones and regulate other endocrine organs. They are the main regulatory organs of the endocrine system.

3 Hypothalamus Located below the thalamus and above the pituitary gland (=epiphysis) Regulates the pituitary gland secretions through two different mechanisms

4 Hypothalamus - neurohypophysis 1- Neurons, receiving information from receptors, fire APs which travel down to the post pituitary gland and stimulate the release of stored neurohormones – Oxytocin (OT) and anti-diuretic hormone (ADH)

5 Hormones of the posterior pituitary RegulationHormoneTarget organActionPathology ReflexOxytocin- Uterus (smooth muscle) - breast tubules (smooth muscles) -labor and delivery - milk-let down -- Reflex (osmoreceptor)ADH (vasopressin) - DCT in kidney tubules - promote H2O reabsorption - not enough: diabetes insipidus - too much: ↑ BP?

6 Hypothalamus – adenohypophysis 2- Upon stimulation, secretory cells located in the hypothalamus secrete “releasing” hormones which travel down a capillary bed toward the anterior pituitary gland (adenopituitary). Each type of releasing hormones will stimulate the secretion and release of a pituitary hormone. Hormones which control the secretion of other hormones are tropic hormones (found in hypothalamus and pituitary gland

7 Figure 6.5 Hormones of the hypothalamus and anterior pituitary gland

8 Figure 6.8 Anterior pituitary RegulationHormoneTarget organActionPathology GHRH and GHIHGrowth hormone (GH)Many cells (bones..) Stimulate cell growth and cell division - not enough: children  pituitary dwarfism too much: gigantism (children) – acromegaly (adult) PRH - PIHProlactin (PL)Breast secretory cells - milk secretion -- TRHThyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) Thyroid gland- promote thyroid gland secretion (T3 and T4) - not enough: hypothyroidism (cretinism in children) - too much: hyperthyroidism CRHAdrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) Adrenal cortex (3 layers) - stimulates secretion of adrenal cortex - not enough: Addison's disease - too much: Cushing syndrome GnRHGonadotropin - Follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) - Luteinizing hormone (LH) Stimulate gamete maturation Stimulate gonadal gland secretion and gamete formation - infertility

9 Figure 23-17 Same Individual with Acromegaly (evolution over 20 years)

10 Figure 6.6 Mechanism of control

11 Figure 6.8a The thyroid gland - Chp 21 p 623-625 Located in the neck, just below the larynx Secrete 2 types of hormone: - thyroid hormones  stimulate cell metabolism, triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4) – iodine is needed to synthesize these hormones - calcitonin  decrease blood calcium

12 Thyroid hormones T3 and T4 secreted by the follicular cells Stored as colloid Parafollicular cells (C cells) secrete calcitonin (Chp 19)

13 Thyroid Hormones T3 and T4 Target organs: all cells Role: Increase cell metabolism, oxygen consumption Permissive role for some other hormones (growth hormone)

14 Figure 6.7 Thyroid hormone regulation

15 Goiter Both hypo and hyperthyroidism can have goiter as a symptom Goiter is a swelling of the neck due to hypertrophy of the thyroid gland How can one explain that?

16 Goiter in hypothyroidism Most often due to a lack of dietary iodine The thyroid hormone is unable to synthesize a functional thyroid hormone (T3 and T4) The person express symptoms of hypothyroidism The nonfunctional T3/T4 cannot promote a negative feedback on TRH and TSH  the hypotalamus and pituitary gland increase their secretions  the thyroid gland is stimulated to secrete more T3 and T4 … In children, the lack of functional T3/T4 result in cretinism, a form a mental retardation

17 Goiter in hyperthyroidism The cells secreting TRH or TSH on the hypothalamus and pituitary gland (respectively) have become abnormal and no longer are sensitive to the negative feedback  they continue to secrete TRH or TSH  continuous stimulation of the thyroid gland with excess thyroid hormones being formed  symptoms of hyperthyroidism

18 Parathyroid glands Four nodules located in the back of the thyroid gland Secreted parathyroid hormone or parathormone or PTH Action of PTH opposes action of calcitonin Both hormones play a role in calcium metabolism

19 Roles of calcium Most calcium ions are stored in the bones Calcium is an important cofactor for enzymatic activity, plays a role in blood coagulation and action potentials. Calcitonin and PTH participate in calcium regulation Vitamin D helps PTH activity

20 Calcium regulation: Calcitonin promotes blood calcium decrease, by: -1. calcium deposition on bone -2. calcium dumping by the kidney PTH promotes blood calcium increase by: -1. bone resorption -2. calcium reabsorption by kidney -3. increase calcium absorption by intestine

21 Calcium Metabolism: Figure 23-20: Calcium balance in the body

22 Figure 19.20

23 The adrenal glands Two endocrine glands: 1- Adrenal medulla: an extension of the sympathetic ANS  cell secrete epinephrine 2- Adrenal cortex: 3 layers with 3 different hormones

24 Figure 6.12b

25 Figure 21.15

26 Adrenal gland hormones RegulationGlandsHormonesTarget organs ActionPathology ReflexAdrenal medullaEpinephrineANS target organs Fight/flightStress Blood PressureAdrenal cortex- Mineralocorticoid = aldosterone DCT from renal tubule - promote sodium reabsorption Not enough" Addison disease CRH  ACTH Glucocorticoid = cortisone Many cellsMobilize fuels – stress adaptation Excess hormone: Cushing syndrome GnRH  GN Estrogen Testosterone Sexual organs- Sex organ maintenance - Gamete development Infertility


28 The pancreas Located in the left upper abdominal cavity Exocrine and endocrine glands The endocrine function is due to the cells of the islets of the Langerhans -- α cells  glucagon -- β  insulin -- δ  somatostatin

29 Glucose regulation Glucose level controlled by insulin and glucagon Insulin promotes a decrease in blood glucose Glucagon promotes an increase in blood glucose

30 Glucose regulation

31 Figure 3.21 Fate of glucose

32 Diabetes mellitus Type I: autoimmune disease  beta cells of the islets of Langerhans are destroyed by antibodies Type II: The cells become insulin-resistant  glucose does not enter the cells as readily logy/Class%20notes/diabetes.htm logy/Class%20notes/diabetes.htm

33 Diabetic foot


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