Presentation on theme: "CONTROL AND NAVIGATION: PEOPLE SEARCHING TO REACH THEIR GOALS IN AN EVER MORE (IN)FLEXIBLE WORLD Mobile Phone Politics in Sudan the companies and relation."— Presentation transcript:
CONTROL AND NAVIGATION: PEOPLE SEARCHING TO REACH THEIR GOALS IN AN EVER MORE (IN)FLEXIBLE WORLD Mobile Phone Politics in Sudan the companies and relation with state and civil society Hisham Bilal PhD Candidate (Sociology) Middle East Technical University METU African Studies Center, Leiden
Contents Introduction: Focus and Scope, Methodology, Sudan and instabilities. Important dates and brief history. Morphology of mobile phone sector in Sudan Mobile phone instabilities MPCs and civil society MPCs in crisis areas To conclude: departing points
Focus and scope: The focus of this presentation will be on two points: The growing telecommunication sector and instabilities in Sudan: the political conflicts, civil wars and economical sanctions. Monopoly Vs polarization: the companies struggle to survive and develop their business.
Methodology The main sources of data: 1. Observation 2. News papers 3. Online interviews 4. Companies reports and web sites
Sudan: a case of instability The country formed in its modern shape during the 19 th century. Sudan has wide range of diversity in; ethnic groups, languages and cultures, religion..etc Witnessed the longest civil war in Africa started 1954 and led to separation of South Sudan in Political instability: three periods of democratic multi parties system (total of 10 years) and three periods of military systems (total of 46 years). Economical instability: poor infrastructure, unstable principles, degraded resources…
Important dates and brief history I 1859: the first time for telecommunication in Sudan, Wire line to Sawakin. 1903: introduction of telecommunication to the public when service been available for individuals and institutions on commercial bases. 1914: introduction of wireless communication.
Important dates and brief history II 1993: within the privatization fever the Wired and Wireless Communication Corporation sold out and the Sudanese Company of Telecommunication SudaTel established. By the end of the same years the number of subscribers reached 42,000.
Important dates and brief history III 1997: MobiTel; the first mobile phone network/operator in Sudan. 1998: SudaNet: the introduction of internet service for the first time. 2003: the second mobile phone operator license 2004: the second fixed telephone operator license.
Important dates and brief history IV 2005: CDMA settlement 2006: SudaTel sold MobiTel and established SUDANI 2006: a. VivaCell covering wide parts of South Sudan b. MobiTel sold out and renamed ZAIN c. AREEBA sold out and renamed MTN 2008: Canar operating its mobile phone network in South Sudan
The Morphology of Mobile Phone Sector The Governmental bodies: 1. The Minstry of Communication and Information Technologiy: 2. The National Communication Authority:
The Companies: The Morphology of Mobile Phone Sector
Mobile Phone instabilities Instable state policies and lake of efficiency Doubts about mobile phone companies Growing number of subscribers Vs limited expansion. Companies inter-conflict.
MPCs and Civil Society Organizations Different kinds of support provided by MPCs to societies. Rising value of Social Responsibility Companies reflecting different interests Supporting cultural activities The question of development and expected role
Mobile phone and crisis areas Sudan has a long history of civil war that took place in the South since 1955 and still running between the two separated countries of Sudan. The new rising armed conflict areas: 1. Darfur; as a development of Arab- African/farmers-pastoral conflicts since 1980s and now the rebel groups. 2. South Kordofan and Blue Nile: the ignorant areas of CPA of 2005 and SPLM/NS armed rebellion.
Mobile phone and crisis areas In spite of the importance of the mobile phone telecommunication in such crisis, but the mobile companies are not welcomed at these areas because of doubts about them due to several reasons among them: 1. Unjustified and Unwarranted interruption in network services. 2. Different cases of murdering supported by remote chasing ! In addition to the high risk of holding a mobile phone in public! (robbery)
Departing points Weakness of liaising bodies and their fungal proliferation The high competition led to unfair play games The need to rebuild relations with society on new bases.