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Simple Literacy Tools and Supports: Children with Complex Support Needs October 22, 2012.

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Presentation on theme: "Simple Literacy Tools and Supports: Children with Complex Support Needs October 22, 2012."— Presentation transcript:

1 Simple Literacy Tools and Supports: Children with Complex Support Needs October 22, 2012

2 ACTIVITY Meeting Curricular Demands : Literacy in SAS Your Current PracticesWant to Know

3 Students with Complex Support Needs: Are those student with disabilities who comprise about 1 – 2 % of all students; and, Are most often are assessed via the PASA, rather than the PSSA; and, May include students who have intellectual disabilities and/or may need life skills support, multiple disabilities support, autistic support or physical support; and, May require augmentative communication systems and assistive technology in order to access, participate and progress in learning. 3

4 History of Curricular Context for Students with Complex Support Needs 1970sDevelopmental Model 1980sFunctional, Life Skills Model 1990sSocial Inclusion Focus Self Determination Focus Assistive Technology 1997 to present: Access and Participation in General Education Curriculum Digitally Accessible Materials

5 Common Concerns with Accessing Curriculum Concern Functional skills get lost when you focus on academics Assumptions Academic skills are not functional Functional skills must be taught as discrete skills Students with special needs need 1 on 1 time to learn skills and they do not get that in inclusive settings

6 History: Curricular Approaches 6 FunctionalAccess to General Curriculum Often directed at learning an activity – cashing a check, taking a bus, etc. Often directed at learning skills and concepts – adding, comprehending, etc. Functional performance of the activity is the goal Performance of skills and concepts is the goal Activities are the end goal and discrete skills are used as part of the activity Activities serve to practice and understand the skills and concepts; generalization of concepts Supports allow a student maximum participation in the activity Supports allow the student to perform the skill

7 Reading Skills for Students with Complex Support Needs Adapted from: NCSC GSEG7

8 Communication for Students with Complex Support Needs 8 Pre- symbolic Emerging Symbolic Words Symbols Pictures Picture symbols Tactile symbols Objects Sounds Eye Gaze Purposeful movement

9 Communication for Students with Complex Support Needs Words / Symbols / Pictures –Verbal or written words, signs, Braille, or language-based augmentative systems –Requests, initiates, and responds to questions, describe things or events, and express refusal. Tactile Symbols / Objects / Picture Symbols –Beginning to use symbols for communication with limited vocabulary; –Uses intentional communication, but not at a symbolic language level; –Uses understandable communication through such modes as gestures, pictures, objects/textures, pointing, etc., to clearly express a variety of intentions. Objects / Pictures / Words –Communicates primarily through cries, facial expressions, change in muscle tone but no clear use of objects/textures, regularized gestures, pictures, signs, etc., to communicate; and/or –Alerts to sensory input from another person but requires actual physical assistance to follow simple directions; and/or –Response to sensory stimuli is unclear.

10 Adapted from: NCSC GSEG10

11 NCSC GSEG11 pre-symbolic emerging symbolic

12 Augmentative & Alternative Communication (AAC) Use NCSC GSEG12 Only 50% of the students in the emerging or pre-symbolic levels in a seven state sample used AAC as part of their educational programs

13 AA AAS GSEG McSheehan Communication 13 Evidence-Based Practice from 20 years in Augmentative Communication 116 articles published between 1987 and 2007 in refereed journals – described a communication intervention – involved one or more participants with severe intellectual and developmental disabilities The evidence reviewed indicates that 96% of the studies reported positive changes in some aspects of communication. These findings support the provision of communication intervention to persons with severe intellectual and developmental disabilities.

14 The Least Dangerous Assumption …educational decisions ought to be based on assumptions, which if incorrect will have the least dangerous effect…we should assume that poor performance is due to instructional inadequacy rather than to student deficits… Anne Donnellan Ph.D University of San Diego

15 Viewing students through the lens of a disability label may increase the likelihood of misjudging capabilities and barring some students from opportunities to learn what other students their age are learning (Jorgensen, McSheehan & Sonnenmeier, 2007) 15

16 Students and Learning Presume Competence Viewing students through the lens of abilities will increase the likelihood of nurturing individual talents and providing all students the opportunities to learn what other students their age are learning… (adapted from Jorgensen, McSheehan & Sonnenmeier, 2007) 16

17 Access to the General Curriculum The IEP team must determine how a student with complex support needs will be provided access to the general curriculum regardless of the setting(s) in which the instruction is delivered. 17

18 Decisions for the IEP Team Special considerations –Will the student need Assistive Technology to actively participate in the instructional process? Access to the general curriculum –Grade Level –Instructional Level –Supplementary aids and services –Specially designed instruction Measureable Annual Goals –What are the priorities for instruction? Standards-Aligned Student-Specific 18

19 PA Academic Standards 19

20 20 Depth of Knowledge Webb s Depth of Knowledge levels:Depth of Knowledge Recall and Reproduction: Level 1 Skills & Concepts: Level 2 Strategic Thinking: Level 3 Extended Thinking: Level 4

21 Decisions for the IEP Team Participation in Statewide Assessment –In what assessment will the student participate? –Are accommodations needed for the student to demonstrate what they know and are able to do? Supports for School Personnel –What training, coaching, and/or collaboration is needed to help the team? Least Restrictive Environment –With the support of supplementary aids and services, where can the student receive benefit from this IEP? 21

22 Designing Learning Targets 1.Is it academic = content referenced: reading, math, science? 2.Is the content referenced to a students assigned grade level based on chronological age? 3.Does the focus of achievement maintain fidelity with the content of the original grade level standard ? What the student is expected to do to demonstrate learning 22

23 Do you or the teachers you supervise… Plan for students based on their assigned grade level? Have access to standards-aligned materials, activities and lesson plans? Teach to the content reflected in a standard? –Know available resources if questions arise? Know how to identify the performance in a standard? –Adapt performance for individual student learning staying as close as possible to original? 23

24 Is it what we think it is? Looking at how complexity builds to fully meet the standard 1.Initial activity 2.Building knowledge and skills 3.Meeting the standard 24

25 Addressing Challenges -Increased diversity within classrooms -High expectations for all students -High stakes testing -Accountability for all students

26 UD UDL Universal Design.. Consider the needs of the broadest possible range of users from the beginning Architect, Ron Mace

27 Universal Design for Learning (UDL) - Concepts and Principles created at CAST (Center for Applied Special Technology)--1984 -CAST is seeding the field of curriculum planning, software development, state and national policy, teacher preparation and support, and education research with UDL-based solutions

28 UDL National Center on Universal Design for Learning at CAST



31 UDL Assumptions –Students with disabilities fall along a continua of learning differences –Typical classes are highly diverse –Curriculum needs fixing, not students –Curriculum materials must be flexible, varied, diverse to accommodate learner differences –General and special education teachers plan curriculum capitalizing on collective expertise

32 Universal Design for Learning –Framework for creating curriculum materials that are accessible by all without barriers –UDL shifts paradigm of one size fits all to a flexible curricula –Educational approach to teaching, learning, and assessment –Creates products or learning environments that accommodate a range of learning abilities from the onset –Not technology only

33 Differentiated Instruction & UDL DI Teaching theory begun in general education classrooms for students considered gifted and not sufficiently challenged Compilation of theories and practices with package lacking empirical validation As classrooms became more diverse, DI utilized for students with differing levels of ability Reactive to individual student needRetrofit methods, materials, assessment UDL Movement begun to anticipate the needs of people with disabilities in architecture (UD) Learning addressed through the theoretical framework (UDL) based upon neurosciences and effective teaching practices Addresses the barriers of curricula- -method, materials and assessment with needs of all learners in mind from the onset AnticipationPlanningNo Retrofit

34 Differentiated Instruction & UDL Recognize students background knowledge, readiness, language, preferences, interests and act responsively Differentiate curriculum: Content, Process, Products DI classroom practices UDL principles

35 UDL Elements in DI Math Lesson UDL Principles Provide multiple examples Highlight critical features Provide multiple media and formats Offer adjustable levels of challenge Differentiated Instruction Features Examples provided throughout story (The Kings Chessboard) and problems presented Highlight throughout story by stopping and calculating amount of rice accumulating and using t-table Teacher reads story aloud while all students have access to story Numbers are represented in story and on t-table Varied support in working groups alter level of independence and difficulty in solving task

36 AT & UDL –Assistive Technology is a set of tools employed to assist individuals in overcoming the barriers that exist in their environment. –UDL seeks to create products and/or environments designed from the outset, to accommodate individuals with a wide range of abilities and disabilities. The design does not contain barriers, nor require technology, aides or other add-on solutions.

37 AT & UDL –Both AT and UDL are essential –Students with disabilities will continue to need AT to address unique needs –UDL focuses upon the learning environment, rather than individual students –Implementation of UDL principles and anticipating learning needs of students with disabilities, increases usability for all students

38 Literacy Instruction: UDL Approach & AT Supports Key Skills for Reading: 1.Phonemic Awareness 2.Phonics/Decoding 3.Vocabulary 4.Fluency 5.Comprehension

39 Phonemic Awareness UDL Whisper phones or PVC Pipe phones Card master with recorded cards to support independent practice Narrate a Power Point AT Software with voice output –Clicker 6 –Simon Sounds It Out –Earobics iPad with apps

40 Phonics/Decoding UDL Fonts –Increase or decrease size –Change types –Spacing –Color of text and/or backgrounds Manipulatives for Elkonin Boxes –Tiles vs. Pieces of paper –Magnetic materials attached to cookie sheets AT Adapt manipulatives with knobs to make them accessible to students with fine motor needs

41 Vocabulary UDL Clip art, photographs, or symbol authoring software to attach visuals with text Electronic dictionary and thesaurus support Graphic organizers –Paper –Electronic AT Text-to-Speech software with word support features and visual maps: –Kurzweil 3000 Picture Dictionary –Read:Outloud –Read & Write Gold Picture Dictionary –WYNN Literacy software

42 Fluency UDL Reduce text on page, chunk amount of text to be read Use reading guides Scoptic filters or colored guides to keep track Power Point Book Worm Talking Word Processor AT Scanning Pens Scan & Read software –Kurzweil 3000 –Read:Outloud –Read & Write Gold –Wynn Literacy software

43 Comprehension UDL Include the use of visuals –Photos –Symbols Chunk text and introduce questions more frequently Highlighters –Physical –Electronic AT Scan & Read software –Kurzweil 3000 –Read:Outloud –Read & Write Gold –WYNN –Embed questions throughout the text

44 Simple Tools & Supports for Literacy Consider… Differentiated Instruction strategies UDL principles Assistive Technology Low-Mid-High strategies and tools

45 ACTIVITY Meeting Curricular Demands : Literacy in SAS Your Current PracticesWant to Know

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