Presentation on theme: "UDL BOOT CAMP Overview: The introduction provides a framework for applying Universal Design for Learning (UDL) principles to meeting the instructional."— Presentation transcript:
1UDL BOOT CAMPOverview: The introduction provides a framework for applying Universal Design for Learning (UDL) principles to meeting the instructional needs of all learners, especially those with disabilities.Presenter Instructions: Welcome participants and present the overall goals and structure of the UDL Toolkit. Ask participants to register for a TES account at to gain full access to online TES materials and resources.UDL is an approach to teaching, learning, and assessment, drawing on new brain research and new media technologies to respond to individual learner differences.
2Norms: Consider being Agents of Disruption Understand that “dissensus” is worth exploringBe active in thought and purposeAssume positive intentRealize we will not solve our problems todayDo not engae in assumicideNo Lifeguarding
5Goals Understand the concepts of Universal Design for Learning Apply the concepts of Universal Design for Learning to classroom practicePresenter states goals of the UDL overview session.
6The ChallengeAccess, participation, and progress in the general education curriculum for all learners IDEA ‘97Current challenges include increased diversity in classrooms; high expectations for all students; high stakes testing; accountability for all students.Today’s classrooms are highly complex and pose difficult hurdles for teachers. As a result of IDEA ’97, many students who used to be excluded from general education curriculum are expected to progress in the general education classroom and curriculum. Teachers now need to be successful with a much more diverse group of students including English Language Learners, students from other cultures, and students with diverse disabilities. All students are commonly in the same schools, same classrooms, and same curriculum. Schools, teachers and students are accountable for real progress and demonstrable learning outcomes in the regular education curriculum. But the print-based curriculum is designed for a homogeneous group of students and is not flexible or adjustable for different learner needs.UDL addresses these challenges and offers increased opportunity for all students to access, participate, and progress in the general education curriculum. In this training session we present principles of UDL and show how to apply them in classroom practice.
7Origins of Universal Design for Learning (UDL) CAST believes that “barriers to learning are not, in fact, inherent in the capacities of learners, but instead arise in learners' interactions with inflexible educational goals, materials, methods, and assessments.”Teaching Every Student in the Digital Age, p. viOverview: This section presents a shift in CAST’s understanding of the challenge of special education: not to “fix” the child who has a problem, but to “fix” the curriculum (goals, methods, materials, and assessments) so that it can meet diverse learner needs.Presenter Instructions: Provide a transition from Universal Design in architecture to Universal Design for Learning by noting that Universal Design is increasingly applied in architecture but is only recently being applied in education. Working with flexible digital media enabled CAST staff to conceptualize a whole new approach that applies Universal Design principles to developing curriculum.The concept and principles of Universal Design for Learning were created at CAST.Note: Click on the image and listen to Dr. David Rose, Co-Executive Director of CAST, talk about the shift in CAST’s thinking
8Origins of Universal Design for Learning (UDL) Definition:UDL is an educational approach to teaching, learning, and assessment, drawing on new brain research and new media technologies to respond to individual learner differences.The word "universal" is sometimes misunderstood to suggest that there is a single solution that works for everyone. But the essence of UDL is flexibility and the inclusion of alternatives to adapt to the myriad variations in learner needs, styles, and preferences.UDL principles draw on brain and media research to help educators reach and teach all students by setting appropriate learning goals, choosing and developing effective methods and materials, and developing accurate and fair ways to assess students' progress. With UDL, each student is addressed as an individual with unique needs, interests, and abilities.
10UDL and the Learning Brain Recognition networkStrategic networkAffective networkThe brain is one large network with many smaller specialized networks that perform different tasks. These smaller networks are defined relative to function: recognition (enabling individuals to identify and understand information, ideas, and concepts), strategic (enabling individuals to plan, execute, and monitor actions and skills), and affective (enabling individuals to engage with tasks and learning and with the world).PET scans and other digital imaging techniques make it possible for neuroscientists to study the learning brain in action. When an individual is engaged in a learning activity, areas of the brain “light up” (“hot spot”) to indicate activity. The more active, the greater the “hot spot” is. The patterns of “hot spots” evident on the PET scan provide neuroscientists with information about the uniqueness of an individual learning brain.
11UDL and the Learning Brain Recognition networks: “the what of learning”identify and interpret patterns of sound, light, taste, smell, and touchThe Recognition Networks, located in the back of the brain, enable us to identify and interpret sound, light, taste, smell, and touch. For example, when you answer the phone and hear a familiar voice you can easily tell who it is without having the person give his/her name. Draw other examples from your understanding of the recognition networks.In a classroom, the recognition networks are essential to learning: students are expected to identify letters, formulas, maps, ideas, cause/effect relationships, etc. Ask audience for additional classroom examples of recognition networks at work.Everyday examples of recognition networks in action include identifying ingredients for recipes, telling the difference between shampoo and shaving cream so you can wash your hair, identifying the smell of freshly cut grass, recognizing the sound of pain or joy, etc.Note: Click on the speaker image and listen to Dr. David Rose talk about the recognition network.
12It tells us what each of these are but also why they are different
13UDL and the Learning Brain Recognition Activity:Show this slide for 2 – 3 seconds.Then ask audience to “write down everything you see.”After a few minutes, ask for audience responses to the image.Audience will most likely identify several objects in the picture, even though the image was not clear or some of the objects were hidden from full view. This is the recognition networks at work.
14UDL and the Learning Brain Strategic networks:“the how of learning”plan, execute, and monitor actions and skillsThe strategic networks are located in the front part of the brain and enable us to plan, execute, and monitor actions and skills.In learning situations, the strategic networks are critical. Examples of the strategic networks at work include: doing a project, taking a test, taking notes, listening to a lectureThey work in tandem with recognition networks to learn to read, compute, write, solve problems, plan and execute compositions and complete projects.Everyday examples of the strategic networks in action include cooking a meal, planning an outing, executing a golf swing, driving a car, etc.
15UDL and the Learning Brain Strategic Activity:this slide for 2 – 3 seconds.Then ask audience to “identify the type of room.”Most likely audience was able to identify the type of room by developing a plan for scanning the image and then putting the pieces of information together to come up with a accurate response.If the focus of the question were on figuring out the ages of people in the room, you would need to develop a different plan of action. Eye movement studies have tracked one individual’s way of looking at this picture. On three occasions, the pattern of looking was quite different. Why might that have been? (Pause for audience to think about it, and then ask for audience thoughts.) Answer: Different questions/goals were posed to the viewer and therefore different strategies for looking were used. Because the information sought was different in each case, the approach and strategy for viewing the image changed.
16UDL and the Learning Brain Affective networks:“the why of learning”evaluate and set prioritiesaffective networks are essential to wanting to learnThe affective networks are located at the core of the brain and enable us to engage with tasks and influence our motivation to learn. They are responsible for developing preferences and establishing priorities and interests.In learning situations, affective networks are essential to wanting to learn. Visualize a high school classroom, the night before the prom: “Are students’ affective networks helping focus on the algebra lesson or on the party after the prom?” Visualize the student who has had years of reading failure in a 9th grade English class: “Is this student motivated to read The Odyssey?”Everyday examples of the affective networks in action include being motivated to get up extra early to wrap presents for a child, wanting to run to the grocery store to shop for a special dinner after a busy day at work, being nervous before a business presentation, etc. Of course, the affective network does not work in isolation from either the recognition or strategic networks.
17UDL and the Learning Brain Affective Activity: .Show this slide for 2 – 3 seconds.Then ask audience “what grabs your attention.”There is not one right answer to this question since many factors influence your focus. For example, if you are a young mother, you might look at the child or if you have recently gotten out of the hospital, you might notice the man’s arm, etc. Your emotional state, your interest or lack of interest, other pending priorities will influence your attention to the task.
18The Myth Around Different Learners Not everyone learns differentlyWe all have these three networksWe may have propensity in different areas and leads to variability
19UDL and the Learning Brain One must recognize information, ideas, and conceptsOne must be able to apply strategies to process the informationOne must be engagedVygotskyThe activities of the three brain networks (recognition, strategic, and affective) parallel Vygotsky’s three prerequisites for learning:One must recognize patterns in perceptual informationOne must have strategies for acting upon the perceived patternsOne must be engaged by the taskLev Vygotsky (1896 – 1934), a Russian psychologist whose works were released after the Cold War, developed the theory of the Zone of Proximal Development. (Refer to resources: The Learning Brain Resources)
20UDL and the Learning Brain Task is too difficult for learnerZONE OF PROXIMAL DEVELOPMENTVygotsky's "zone of proximal development" (ZPD) suggests that learning occurs when there is an appropriate level of challenge and support to learn the task.In classroom learning situations, this means providing learning tasks that are too difficult to do independently, but are within reach with support. The task should stretch the learner past his current level of knowledge.Visualize your own personal encounters in learning situations and think about one where you were bored, inattentive or distracted: Was your inattention due to lack of challenge or inadequate support to understand the content? In either case, you were not learning in your “zone.”Task is too easy for learner
21Flow Theory 8 conditions Clear goals and feedbackEquilibrium between challenge and skillMerging of action and awarenessFocused concentrationSense of potential controlLoss of self-consciousnessTime distortionAutotelic or self-rewarding experience
25UDL and the Learning Brain All learners are variable and universal does not mean “one size fits all”Summarize UDL and the Learning Brain and note implications for classroom practice. Some key points:Understanding the learning brain in terms of recognition, strategic, and affective networks forms a framework for thinking about learner differences.There are no “regular” education students; categorization by ability or disability does not represent the reality of each student’s uniqueness.
26The Framework for UDLOverview: This section presents the three principles of UDL and new assumptions about UDL.All students have appropriate instructional goals, methods, assessments, and materials so that they participate and make progress in the general educational curriculum. This will take into account the uniqueness of each learner and capitalize on their strengths, preferences, interests, backgrounds, etc.
27Principles of UDL Provide multiple, flexible methods of presentation Provide multiple, flexible methods of expression and apprenticeshipProvide multiple, flexible options for engagementGiven that the three brain networks are involved in learning, that each individual is unique, that learning is multifaceted, and that barriers may interfere with one’s learning, CAST proposes the following three UDL principles that are formed to minimize barriers and maximize learning through flexibility:Provide multiple, flexible methods of presentation to support recognition learningProvide multiple, flexible methods of expression and apprenticeship to support strategic learningProvide multiple, flexible options for engagement to support affective learningCommon to the three principles is flexibility, choice, alternatives, and options.
28Principles of UDLThe key is Flexibility not fitting into the box
29New Assumptions: UDLStudents with disabilities fall along multiple continuaTypical classes are highly diverseTeacher adjustments benefit all learnersCurriculum needs fixing, not the studentsCurriculum materials must be flexible, varied, and diverseGeneral Education and Special Education teachers plan curriculumUDL shifts old assumptions about teaching and learning in fundamental ways.The "universal" in Universal Design for Learning does not imply one optimal solution for everyone. Rather, it means flexibility and alternatives; not “one size fits all.”Assumptions:Students with disabilities fall along multiple continua of learning differences, rather than in separate categories of disabilities or abilitiesTypical classes are highly diverse.Teacher adjustments benefit all learners and not just those with disabilities.Curriculum needs fixing, not the students (curriculum materials should be varied and diverse including digital and online resources, rather than centering on a single textbook).Curriculum materials must be flexible, varied, and diverse (instead of remediating students so that they can learn from a set curriculum, curriculum should be made flexible to accommodate learner differences).General education and special education teachers plan curriculum (curriculum planning capitalizes on the collective expertise of the general and special educations teachers).
30QuestionsWhich methods of teaching are most effective with the ways that each brain network functions?What kinds of flexibility must instructional materials have to address the uniqueness of each learner?Overview: This section highlights different instructional approaches for teaching information, the “what” of learning.Presenter Instructions: Follow the sequence of slides, providing multiple examples for each of the teaching methods and asking the audience for input from their own practice.Introduce the following two questions to be addressed in this section:Which methods of teaching are most effective with the ways that each brain network functions?What kinds of flexibility must instructional materials have to address the uniqueness of each learner?
31Supporting Recognition Learning Provide alternative formats for presenting informationProvide multiple examplesHighlight critical featuresProvide multiple media and formatsSupport background contextApplying what we know about the recognition networks and what we know about the flexibility of digital media, we can design instruction to support recognition learning by considering appropriate teaching methods. The next few slides will illustrate some teaching methods for supporting recognition learning.
32Recognition: Provide multiple examples K-2 Goal: Recognize that animals (including humans) and plants are living things that grow, reproduce, and need food, air, and water.Examples of living thingsExamples of non-living thingsThis instructional goal focuses on understanding the distinction between living and non-living things. In order to support all learners, it is important to provide multiple examples and non-examples of the concepts being taught.
33Recognition: Highlight Critical Features Highlight critical features to identify a birdBirds have wings.Birds have beaks.Birds have feathers.In teaching new concepts, learners benefit from pointing out the critical features of the new idea, pattern, or concept. Note in the example, the teacher wants students to be able to identify characteristics of birds, therefore, the teacher explicitly draws the students’ attention to distinguishing features of birds, i.e. wings, beaks, feathers.Is this a bird?
34Recognition: Multiple Media & Formats Provide a range of formats and media to ensure access for allPresenting new information in many formats and media increases options for all learners and consequently increases chances of success for all learners.
35Supporting Strategic Learning Provide alternative means for action and expressionProvide flexible models of skilled performanceProvide opportunities to practice with supportsProvide ongoing, relevant feedbackOffer flexible opportunities for demonstrating skillOverview: This section highlights different instructional approaches for teaching skills and strategies, the “how” of learning.Presenter InstructionsFollow the sequence of slides, providing multiple examples for each of the teaching methods and asking the audience for input from their own practice.Given what we know about the uniqueness of each individual, we need to provide learners with multiple and varied ways for learning new strategies and for demonstrating skilled performance. The following methods are examples of how teachers can support strategic learning.
36Strategic: Flexible models of performance Provide expert models of skilled performance and counter examplesof incorrect executionThink and share!Think about examples and counter examples of performance,e.g. think about good tennis techniques and poor execution of serving.Models of successful ways to healthy eating and incorrect ways to healthy eatingAnd more…Visualize a first grade class as children are learning to read. The teacher presents many models of expert reading: reading aloud, listening to tapes, choral reading, reading with another peer, listening to a computer read, etc.Ask the audience to think and share successful models of a skilled performance and non-examples of a skilled performance.
37Strategic: Ongoing relevant feedback Feedback is provided in an on-going fashion.The most effective type of feedback is ongoing so that learners can build their confidence and that any misconceptions can be corrected along the way to ensure that the learner is on the right course. In this example, students using a CAST developed program called Thinking Reader receive context specific feedback when they send their work to the work log. The Thinking Reader is a computer-supported reading environment designed to support students as they learn to read for understanding. Thinking Reader provides embedded instructional strategies within digital versions of text. These strategies prompt students to construct meaning as they read by having students clarify their thinking by asking questions, making predictions about what will happen in the story, visualizing events, and summarizing what they have read. Thinking Reader provides students with feedback specific to the content as they work within the program. When students send work to the work log, they receive immediate feedback that tells them they are correct and to move on, or that they need to re-think their answer. The feedback guides the students and informs them about points they might have missed or how they might need to direct their thinking. This is only one example of how ongoing feedback can be used to support students’ strategic networks.
38Supporting Affective Learning Provide alternative means for engagementOffer choices of content and toolsOffer adjustable levels of challengeOffer choices of rewardsOffer choices of learning context.Our understanding of the relevance of the three networks clearly indicates that instruction needs to support affective learning. Motivation, interest, engagement, desire, curiosity, and preference are essential to learning.Divide the audience into small groups and assign each group one teaching method from slide 12. Allow ten minutes for the groups to brainstorm different ways for students to achieve the instructional goals, while supporting affective learning.After ten minutes, ask each group to share their ideas with the audience.Presenter takes notes on a computer connected to a projector so that information can be saved and printed for the audience.
39The UDL Approach Diversity is the norm in today’s classrooms Applying the UDL principles in education is enabled by:Appropriate goalsFlexible and supportive digital materialsFlexible and diverse methods, andAccessible and flexible assessmentsOverview: Presents a summary of the UDL approach.Diversity is the norm and should be anticipated in all aspects of instruction and learning.Applying the principles of Universal Design for Learning in education is enabled by:Appropriate goals for learning and performance (separating means from the goal);Flexible and supportive digital materials usable with new electronic tools for access and learning;Flexible and diverse methods while applying appropriate challenges and support; andAccessible and flexible assessments that measure what needs to be measured.