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1.2 Ser and Estar Calentamiento Escribe tu opinon sobre las personas de que aprendieron en las ultimas dos clases. En tu opinon, ¿por qué no eran tan conocidos.

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Presentation on theme: "1.2 Ser and Estar Calentamiento Escribe tu opinon sobre las personas de que aprendieron en las ultimas dos clases. En tu opinon, ¿por qué no eran tan conocidos."— Presentation transcript:

1 1.2 Ser and Estar Calentamiento Escribe tu opinon sobre las personas de que aprendieron en las ultimas dos clases. En tu opinon, ¿por qué no eran tan conocidos como J-lo, Pitt Bull y Eva Longoria? ¿Te molesta un poquito que solamente los famosos latinos son los mas bellos y no los más influyentes? © and ® 2011 Vista Higher Learning, Inc.

2 1.2 Ser and Estar © and ® 2011 Vista Higher Learning, Inc Estoy enamorado de usted. No, no puede ser.

3 1.2 Ser and Estar © and ® 2011 Vista Higher Learning, Inc.1.2-3

4 1.2 Ser and Estar © and ® 2011 Vista Higher Learning, Inc Ser and estar both mean to be, but they are not interchangeable. Ser is used to express the idea of permanence, such as inherent or unchanging qualities and characteristics. Estar is used to express temporality, including qualities or conditions that change with time. ¡ATENCIÓN!

5 1.2 Ser and Estar © and ® 2011 Vista Higher Learning, Inc.1.2-5

6 1.2 Ser and Estar © and ® 2011 Vista Higher Learning, Inc Ser and estar with adjectives Ser is used with adjectives to describe inherent, expected qualities. Estar is used to describe temporary or variable qualities, or a change in appearance or condition. La casa es muy pequeña.¡Están tan enojados! The house is very small.Theyre so angry!

7 1.2 Ser and Estar © and ® 2011 Vista Higher Learning, Inc With most descriptive adjectives, either ser or estar can be used, but the meaning of each statement is different. Julio es alto.¡Ay, qué alta estás, Adriana! Julio is tall. (that is, a tall person)How tall youre getting, Adriana! Dolores es alegre.El jefe está alegre hoy. ¿Qué le pasa? Dolores is cheerful. (that is, a cheerful person) The boss is cheerful today. Whats up with him? Juan Carlos es un hombre guapo.¡Manuel, estás tan guapo! Juan Carlos is a handsome man.Manuel, you look so handsome!

8 1.2 Ser and Estar © and ® 2011 Vista Higher Learning, Inc Some adjectives have two different meanings depending on whether they are used with ser or estar. Estar, not ser, is used with muerto/a. Bécquer, el autor de las Rimas, está muerto. Bécquer, the author of Rimas, is dead. ¡ATENCIÓN!

9 1.2 Ser and Estar © and ® 2011 Vista Higher Learning, Inc Spanish has two simple tenses to indicate actions in the past: the preterite (el pretérito) and the imperfect (el imperfecto). The preterite is used to describe actions or states that began or were completed at a definite time in the past.

10 1.2 Ser and Estar © and ® 2011 Vista Higher Learning, Inc The preterite tense of regular verbs is formed by dropping the infinitive ending (-ar, -er, -ir) and adding the preterite endings. Note that the endings of regular -er and -ir verbs are identical in the preterite tense.

11 1.2 Ser and Estar © and ® 2011 Vista Higher Learning, Inc The preterite of all regular and some irregular verbs requires a written accent on the preterite endings in the yo, usted, él, and ella forms. Ayer empecé un nuevo trabajo. Mi mamá preparó una cena deliciosa. Yesterday I started a new job. My mom prepared a delicious dinner.

12 1.2 Ser and Estar © and ® 2011 Vista Higher Learning, Inc Verbs that end in -car, -gar, and -zar have a spelling change in the yo form of the preterite. All other forms are regular. buscar llegar empezar busc- lleg- empez- -qu- -gu- -c- yo busqué yo llegué yo empecé

13 1.2 Ser and Estar © and ® 2011 Vista Higher Learning, Inc Caer, creer, leer, and oír change -i- to -y- in the usted, él, and ella forms and in the ustedes, ellos, and ellas forms of the preterite. They also require a written accent on the -i- in all other forms. caer creer leer oír caí, caíste, cayó, caímos, caísteis, cayeron creí, creíste, creyó, creímos, creísteis, creyeron leí, leíste, leyó, leímos, leísteis, leyeron oí, oíste, oyó, oímos, oísteis, oyeron

14 1.2 Ser and Estar © and ® 2011 Vista Higher Learning, Inc Verbs with infinitives ending in -uir change -i- to -y- in the usted, él, and ella forms and in the ustedes, ellos, and ellas forms of the preterite. construir incluir construí, construiste, construyó, construimos, construisteis, construyeron incluí, incluiste, incluyó, incluimos, incluisteis, incluyeron

15 1.2 Ser and Estar © and ® 2011 Vista Higher Learning, Inc Stem-changing -ir verbs also have a stem change in the usted, él, and ella forms and in the ustedes, ellos, and ellas forms of the preterite. Other -ir stem-changing verbs include: conseguirrepetir consentirseguir hervir sentir morirservir preferir ¡ATENCIÓN!

16 1.2 Ser and Estar © and ® 2011 Vista Higher Learning, Inc Stem-changing -ar and -er verbs do not have a stem change in the preterite. A number of verbs, most of them -er and -ir verbs, have irregular preterite stems. Note that none of these verbs takes a written accent on the preterite endings. Nunca tuve oportunidad de despedirme de él.

17 1.2 Ser and Estar © and ® 2011 Vista Higher Learning, Inc Ser, ir, and dar also have irregular preterites. The preterite forms of ser and ir are identical. Note that the preterite forms of ver are regular. However, unlike other regular preterites, they do not take a written accent. ser/ir fui, fuiste, fue, fuimos, fuisteis, fueron dar di, diste, dio, dimos, disteis, dieron ver vi, viste, vio, vimos, visteis, vieron The preterite of hay is hubo. Hubo dos conciertos el viernes. There were two concerts on Friday. ¡ATENCIÓN!

18 1.2 Ser and Estar © and ® 2011 Vista Higher Learning, Inc Note that the third-person plural ending of j-stem preterites drops the i: dijeron, trajeron. ¡ ATENCIÓN !

19 1.2 Ser and Estar © and ® 2011 Vista Higher Learning, Inc Note that not only does the stem of decir (dij-) end in j, but the stem vowel e changes to i. In the usted, él, and ella form of hacer (hizo), c changes to z to maintain the pronunciation. Most verbs that end in -cir have j-stems in the preterite.

20 1.2 Ser and Estar © and ® 2011 Vista Higher Learning, Inc The imperfect tense in Spanish is used to narrate past events without focusing on their beginning, end, or completion. Mi hijo era tímido y de pocas palabras como usted.

21 1.2 Ser and Estar © and ® 2011 Vista Higher Learning, Inc The imperfect tense of regular verbs is formed by dropping the infinitive ending (-ar, -er, -ir) and adding personal endings. -Ar verbs take the endings -aba, -abas, -aba, -ábamos, -abais, -aban. -Er and -ir verbs take -ía, -ías, -ía, - íamos, -íais, -ían.

22 1.2 Ser and Estar © and ® 2011 Vista Higher Learning, Inc Ir, ser, and ver are the only verbs that are irregular in the imperfect.

23 1.2 Ser and Estar © and ® 2011 Vista Higher Learning, Inc The imperfect tense narrates what was going on at a certain time in the past. It often indicates what was happening in the background. Cuando yo era joven, vivía en una ciudad muy grande. Todas las semanas, mis padres y yo visitábamos a mis abuelos. When I was young, I lived in a big city. Every week, my parents and I visited my grandparents.

24 1.2 Ser and Estar © and ® 2011 Vista Higher Learning, Inc The imperfect of haber is había. There is no plural form. Había tres cajeros en el supermercado. There were three cashiers in the supermarket. Sólo había un mesero en el café. There was only one waiter in the café.

25 1.2 Ser and Estar © and ® 2011 Vista Higher Learning, Inc These words and expressions, among others, are often used with the imperfect because they express habitual or repeated actions without reference to their beginning or end: de niño/a (as a child), todos los días (every day), mientras (while). De niño, vivía en un suburbio de la Ciudad de México. As a child, I lived in a suburb of Mexico City. Todos los días visitaba a mis primos en un pueblo cercano. Every day I visited my cousins in a nearby village.

26 1.2 Ser and Estar © and ® 2011 Vista Higher Learning, Inc

27 1.2 Ser and Estar © and ® 2011 Vista Higher Learning, Inc Although the preterite and imperfect both express past actions or states, the two tenses have different uses. They are not interchangeable.

28 1.2 Ser and Estar © and ® 2011 Vista Higher Learning, Inc Uses of the preterite To express actions or states viewed by the speaker as completed. Viviste en ese barrio el año pasado. You lived in that neighborhood last year. Mis amigas fueron al centro comercial ayer. My girlfriends went to the mall yesterday. Mi hijo murió en un choque.

29 1.2 Ser and Estar © and ® 2011 Vista Higher Learning, Inc To express the beginning or end of a past action. La telenovela empezó a las ocho. The soap opera began at eight oclock. Estas dos noticias se difundieron la semana pasada. These two news items were broadcast last week.

30 1.2 Ser and Estar © and ® 2011 Vista Higher Learning, Inc To narrate a series of past actions. Salí de casa, crucé la calle y entré en el edificio. I left the house, crossed the street, and entered the building. Llegó al centro, le dieron indicaciones y se fue. He arrived at the center, they gave him directions, and he left.

31 1.2 Ser and Estar © and ® 2011 Vista Higher Learning, Inc Uses of the imperfect To describe an ongoing past action without reference to beginning or end. No se podía parar delante de la comisaría. Stopping in front of the police station was not permitted. Juan tomaba el transporte público frecuentemente. Juan frequently took public transportation. El otro conductor iba borracho.

32 1.2 Ser and Estar © and ® 2011 Vista Higher Learning, Inc To express habitual past actions. Me gustaba jugar al fútbol los domingos. I used to like to play soccer on Sundays. Solían hacer las diligencias los fines de semana. They used to run errands on weekends.

33 1.2 Ser and Estar © and ® 2011 Vista Higher Learning, Inc To describe mental, physical, and emotional states or conditions. Estaba muy nerviosa antes de la entrevista. She was very nervous before the interview.

34 1.2 Ser and Estar © and ® 2011 Vista Higher Learning, Inc To tell time. Eran las ocho y media de la mañana. It was eight thirty a.m.

35 1.2 Ser and Estar © and ® 2011 Vista Higher Learning, Inc The preterite and imperfect used together When narrating in the past, the imperfect describes what was happening, while the preterite describes the action that interrupted the ongoing activity. The imperfect provides background information, while the preterite indicates specific events that advance the plot. Here are some transitional words useful for clarity when narrating past events. primero firstentonces then al principio in the beginningluego then, next antes (de) before siempre always después (de) after mientras while al final finallyla última vez the last time ¡ATENCIÓN!

36 1.2 Ser and Estar © and ® 2011 Vista Higher Learning, Inc Mientras estudiaba, sonó la alarma contra incendios. Me levanté de un salto y miré el reloj. Eran las 11:30 de la noche. Salí corriendo de mi cuarto. En el pasillo había más estudiantes. La alarma seguía sonando. Bajamos las escaleras y, al llegar a la calle, me di cuenta de que hacía un poco de frío. No tenía un suéter. De repente, la alarma dejó de sonar. No había ningún incendio. While I was studying, the fire alarm went off. I jumped up and looked at the clock. It was 11:30 p.m. I ran out of my room. In the hall there were more students. The alarm continued to blare. We rushed down the stairs and, when we got to the street, I realized that it was a little cold. I didnt have a sweater. Suddenly, the alarm stopped. There was no fire.

37 1.2 Ser and Estar © and ® 2011 Vista Higher Learning, Inc Different meanings in the imperfect and preterite The verbs querer, poder, saber, and conocer have different meanings when they are used in the preterite. Notice also the meanings of no querer and no poder in the preterite.

38 1.2 Ser and Estar © and ® 2011 Vista Higher Learning, Inc Saber and conocer are not usually interchangeable. Saber means to know (facts, information, or how to do something), while conocer means to know or to be familiar/acquainted with (a person, place, or thing). Some contexts, however, lend themselves to either verb. La policía sabía/conocía el paradero del sospechoso. The police knew of the suspects whereabouts. ¡ATENCIÓN!


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