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CODEL Total Solutions - Total Confidence CODEL International Ltd Station Road, Bakewell, Derbyshire DE45 1GE England Tel: +44 (0) 1629 814 351 Fax: +44.

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Presentation on theme: "CODEL Total Solutions - Total Confidence CODEL International Ltd Station Road, Bakewell, Derbyshire DE45 1GE England Tel: +44 (0) 1629 814 351 Fax: +44."— Presentation transcript:

1 CODEL Total Solutions - Total Confidence CODEL International Ltd Station Road, Bakewell, Derbyshire DE45 1GE England Tel: +44 (0) Fax: +44 (0) website:

2 CODEL Continuous Emissions Monitoring

3 Customer requirements for continuous emissions monitoring Measurement of all pollutant gases Measurement of solids emissions Measurement of complementary parameters Measurement to comply with legislation Secure data presentation Maximum reliability Low cost of ownership CODEL

4 Fully integrated system Seven gas species in a single analyser Particulate measurement Pollutant gas flow measurement Automatic data normalisation Five-year data logging & reporting Automatic calibration verification CODEL CODEL SmartCEM

5 Gaseous species Carbon monoxideCO Nitric oxideNO Nitrogen dioxideNO2 Sulphur dioxideSO2 Hydrogen chlorideHCl MethaneCH4 Carbon dioxideCO2 Water vapourH2O CODEL

6 Available techniques for continuous gas analysis Infrared spectroscopy Ultraviolet spectroscopy Electrochemical cell Solid electrolyte cell Paramagnetic Tuneable diode laser Chemiluminescence Flame ionisation devices CODEL

7 Infrared spectroscopy CODEL Suitable for measuring many different species wavenumber = 1/wavelength in cm = 10000/wavelength in μm

8 Infrared spectroscopy CODEL Suitable for measuring many different species wavenumber = 1/wavelength in cm = 10000/wavelength in μm H2OH2O H 2 O and CO 2

9 Infrared spectroscopy CODEL CO Suitable for measuring many different species wavenumber = 1/wavelength in cm = 10000/wavelength in μm H2OH2O H 2 O and CO 2

10 Infrared spectroscopy CODEL CONO Suitable for measuring many different species wavenumber = 1/wavelength in cm = 10000/wavelength in μm H2OH2O H 2 O and CO 2

11 Infrared spectroscopy CODEL SO 2 CONO Suitable for measuring many different species wavenumber = 1/wavelength in cm = 10000/wavelength in μm H2OH2O H 2 O and CO 2

12 Infrared spectroscopy CODEL SO 2 CO 2 CONO Suitable for measuring many different species wavenumber = 1/wavelength in cm = 10000/wavelength in μm H2OH2O H 2 O and CO 2

13 Infrared spectroscopy CODEL SO 2 CO 2 CONO Suitable for measuring many different species wavenumber = 1/wavelength in cm = 10000/wavelength in μm CH 4 H2OH2O H 2 O and CO 2

14 Infrared spectroscopy CODEL HClSO 2 CO 2 CONO Suitable for measuring many different species wavenumber = 1/wavelength in cm = 10000/wavelength in μm CH 4 H2OH2O H 2 O and CO 2

15 Infrared spectroscopy CODEL CH 4 NO 2 HClSO 2 CO 2 CONO Suitable for measuring many different species wavenumber = 1/wavelength in cm = 10000/wavelength in μm H2OH2O H 2 O and CO 2

16 Carbon Monoxide CO CODEL wavenumber = 1/wavelength in cm = 10000/wavelength in μm

17 Live and Reference measurements Particles in the gas Variations in the transmitted energy Contaminated optical surfaces CODEL It is necessary to separate the infrared energy absorbed by the measured gas from the energy modified by other effects such as:

18 Multiple measurements in a single analyser infrared detector Pairs of live and reference optical filters are positioned sequentially in front of the detector

19 Multiple measurements in a single analyser infrared detector Pairs of live and reference optical filters are positioned sequentially in front of the detector

20 Multiple measurements in a single analyser infrared detector Pairs of live and reference optical filters are positioned sequentially in front of the detector

21 Multiple measurements in a single analyser infrared detector Pairs of live and reference optical filters are positioned sequentially in front of the detector

22 Application of IR spectroscopy Conventional cold extractive Conventional hot extractive Extractive with permeation dryer Open path cross-duct In-situ diffusion probe Heavy duty hot extractive CODEL

23 Conventional cold extractive Simple probe with pre-filters Condensate removed at probe Simple sample lines x Some gases are absorbed in the condensate x Long sample lines can freeze x Major maintenance required if any water or solids reach the delicate analysers CODEL CO NO NO2 Dryers & filters SO2 Condensate drain Free-standing analyser cabinet in control room

24 Conventional hot extractive Heated probe with pre-filters Gases held above dewpoint in heated sample line Analyser cabinet must be in control room with long expensive sample lines Major maintenance required if heated sample lines fail and any water or solids reach the delicate analysers CODEL CO NO NO2 Final filters SO2 Free-standing analyser cabinet in control room

25 Extractive with permeation dryer Probe with pre-filter and integral permeation dryer Water vapour removed at probe Simple sample lines Requires clean compressed air dried to -20degC Major maintenance if water or solids reach the analysers No water vapour measurement for normalisation CODEL CO NO NO2 Final filters SO2 Dry air in Wet air out

26 Tx Rx Open path cross-duct Simple installation No corruption of gases Single or multiple species Performance cannot be audited against test gases Performance depends on available measurement path Variations in dust level and optical alignment can limit measurement sensitivity CODEL

27 Tx Rx CODEL in-situ diffusion probe Filtered measurement chamber suitable for high dust levels Simple installation No corruption of gases Single or multiple species plus H 2 O Performance can be audited against test gases Fixed optical alignment Maximum reliability CODEL

28 CODEL G-CEM4000 gas analyser

29 CODEL heavy duty hot extractive In-duct probe with pre-filter Gases held above dewpoint in heated sample line Multiple species plus H 2 O Performance can be audited against test gases Robust folded beam analyser requires minimal pre-conditioning Increased measurement sensitivity Maximum reliability CODEL Free-standing field- mounted analyser

30 CODEL G-CEM4100 gas analyser

31 Particulate measurement Particles emitted from a combustion process include smoke, soot, ash & carried-over process materials (such as cement). All of these particles are visible. They can be measured by looking at how much they absorb and scatter visible light. CODEL

32 Particulate legislation Ringelmann number Opacity Smoke density Extinction Dust density in mg/m 3 Requirements for expressing the amount of solids emitted from a process can vary dramatically for different processes and in different countries CODEL

33 Ringelmann A simple manual assessment of the appearance of the plume against a standard chart graded white to black in 6 steps (Ringelmann 0 – 5) CODEL

34 Continuous measurements For continuous measurement the energy absorbed and scattered by the particles inside the exhaust duct can be expressed as: Transmittance T = Ir/Io Transmitted energy Io Received energy Ir CODEL

35 Opacity/Smoke density This is the simplest continuous measurement. It is the opposite of transmittance expressed as a percentage. %opacity = (1-T)x100 This is the measurement preferred by US EPA Transmitted energy Io Received energy Ir CODEL

36 Opacity With a uniform dust concentration the opacity measured depends on the measured path. CODEL % opacity

37 Continuous dust monitoring techniques CODEL Single pass transmissometer Double pass transmissometer Double beam transmissometer Optical scatter Triboelectric probe

38 Single pass transmissometer Simple low cost technique High efficiency air purges to keep windows clean Cannot differentiate between gas-borne particles and window contamination Cannot detect misalignment errors CODEL Beam splitter Light source Control detector Measurement detector

39 Double pass transmissometer CODEL Auto- collimating reflector Light source Detector Zero point reflector Air purges to keep windows clean Zero check reflector in transceiver unit Window contamination check on transceiver only Non-linear due to back scatter from the particles Cannot detect misalignment errors Mirror

40 Double beam transmissometer - measuring CODEL High efficiency air purges keep windows clean Alternate, bi-directional measurement provides automatic misalignment check Measures across entire duct section Rotary valve with integral mirror Light source Detector Mirror Beam splitter

41 Double beam transmissometer - contamination check CODEL Protected mirrors check individual contamination on both transceivers Rotary valves protect transceivers during purge air or power failure Mirror rotated into optical path Light source Detector Mirror Beam splitter

42 Light source Detector Back, forward or side scatter CODEL High sensitivity Can be built into a probe Measures in a very small zone – local to duct wall Measured zone not consistently representative In-duct reflections cause zero errors Unsuitable for large ducts or high levels Measures light reflected from illuminated particles

43 Triboelectric probe CODEL Simple low cost probe High sensitivity Easy to install Highly cross-sensitive to many operating parameters Measurement is flow-dependent Unsuitable for large ducts Measures electrical charge transfer as particles collide with the probe

44 Hot gas velocity measurement techniques CODEL Pitot tube Thermal anemometer Bi-directional ultrasonic Triboelectric correlation Infrared correlation

45 Pitot tube CODEL Simple manual technique Single or multi-point Automated systems are prone to blockage Unsuitable for irregular, cyclonic or angular flow Unsuitable with high level particulates or aerosols Complex installation Type L Pitot tube Differential pressure Velocity pressure Static pressure Measures the velocity pressure produced at an orifice facing into the flow.

46 Thermal anemometer CODEL Flue gases cool a hot wire held in the gas stream. The amount of cooling is a function of the gas temperature, gas composition and velocity. Simple installation Single or multi-point Unsuitable for ducts with high spatial variations Affected by condensates and dust build-up Non-linear outputs need site calibration

47 Bi-directional ultrasonic CODEL Measures the difference between the transit time of sonic pulses transmitted upstream and downstream Average measurement across entire duct Transceivers must be purged to keep them cool and clean Complex install and service – especially on large ducts Complex end effects Errors due to secondary reflections and vibration

48 Correlation velocity measurement CODEL Measures the offset (equal to the transit time T) between signals from 2 separated detectors. time

49 Triboelectric correlation CODEL Measures the transit time between signals from two close-coupled triboelectric probes Simple installation Unsuitable for ducts with high spatial variations Affected by condensates and dust build-up Unsuitable for turbulent flow Unsuitable for large ducts Close-coupled probes prone to bridging with high dust burdens

50 Infrared correlation CODEL Measures the transit time between signals from two separated bulk infrared detectors Simple installation Average across entire duct Suitable for high temperatures High efficiency air purges Unaffected by condensates and dust build-up Suitable for turbulent flow Suitable for large or small ducts

51 CODEL CODEL V-CEM 5000 flow monitor

52 Data normalisation CODEL Changes in temperature Changes in absolute pressure Excess air Water vapour International legislation demands that any dilution at the point of measurement must be corrected. The measurement can be diluted by: It is necessary to measure these complementary parameters and apply the appropriate correction. This is known as normalisation. Normalised values are in mg/Nm 3

53 Data formats CODEL Gases ppm mg/m 3 mg/Nm 3 kg/hr With the necessary complementary measurements CODEL analysers can present data in the following formats to suit all legislative and plant requirements Particulates opacity extinction mg/m 3 mg/Nm 3 kg/hr

54 System integration In any CEM system it is vital that normalisation and operating data are shared by all analysers. CODEL analysers are designed to communicate with each other using a series of robust bi-directional data highways. One highway distributes data between all analysers on the same stack. Another highway can be connected to a remote station for central data & diagnostic presentation and control via a PC. This central PC can be interrogated and controlled via a telephone modem or broadband internet link.

55 CODEL Typical CODEL SmartCEM layout

56 CODEL Typical CODEL SmartCEM layout

57 CODEL SmartCEM data logging Measured and normalised data in many formats CODEL Real time values All data formats Digital & analogue presentation Normalisation data User-configurable spans & alarms Up to 12 channels in up to 12 groups

58 CODEL CODEL SmartCEM data logging Historical data in many formats Instant access to >5yrs historical data Customised reports 3 levels of security User-configurable spans and alarms Multi-user networking System diagnostics QAL3 reporting

59 CODEL Total Solutions - Total Confidence CODEL International Ltd Station Road, Bakewell, Derbyshire DE45 1GE England Tel: +44 (0) Fax: +44 (0) website:


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