Applications Green House Gases Green House Gases Natural Gas Natural Gas Combustion Air Combustion Air Compressed Air Compressed Air Flare Flare Digester gas/Bio gas/Landfill gas Digester gas/Bio gas/Landfill gas
Green House Gases 40 CFR 98 40 CFR 98 –Mandatory reporting of Green House Gas Emissions CO 2, CH 4, N 2 O CO 2, CH 4, N 2 O –Subpart C – Stationary Combustion sources –Other subparts are Industry specific Natural Gas Industry Natural Gas Industry Landfill operations Landfill operations Chemical Plants Chemical Plants Refineries Refineries More More Carbon Credits Carbon Credits
Natural Gas Flows Boilers/Combustion Process Boilers/Combustion Process –Reporting GHG (EPA requirements) –Reporting Emissions (Local requirements) –Combustion efficiency –Typical Conditions 2 – 3 inch pipe 2 – 3 inch pipe Temperatures 60 – 80F Temperatures 60 – 80F Pressures max 5 psig Pressures max 5 psig Flow rates: Flow rates: –2 = 10,000 SCFH –3 = 20,000 SCFH (6,000 SFPM) (6,000 SFPM) –Burner Size 20 MM BTU/hr 20 MM BTU/hr
Natural Gas Flow Check meter Check meter –Gas Company distribution center –Repeatable, relative flow measurements –Check relative time of day flow in different distribution sections –Typical operating Conditions 18 pipe 18 pipe 80 – 100 psig 80 – 100 psig Flow Rate 65,000 SCFM Flow Rate 65,000 SCFM (40,000 SFPM) (40,000 SFPM)
Natural Gas Flow Avoid Avoid –Transmission Lines Pressure too high = 500 to 2,000 psi Pressure too high = 500 to 2,000 psi –Custody Transfer Not AGA approved Not AGA approved Provide entire meter run Provide entire meter run
ISO 50001 Energy Management Systems Reduce Energy Usage Reduce Energy Usage –Continually review and monitor energy usage –Goal of improve energy performance Program supported by US Department of Energy (DOE) Program supported by US Department of Energy (DOE) Opportunities for Sage: – Improvement in combustion efficiency Natural gas Natural gas –Compressed air measurement to reduce leakage
Stoichiometric Combustion Theoretical combustion of all the fuel when mixed with the correct amount of air Fuel + air = Heat + CO 2 + H 2 O + CO + Unburned Fuel + Waste Heat up stack Does not occur in reality – some excess air is needed o Control Air Fuel Ratios o Ratio based on the mass of fuel compared to the mass of air Increases as Combustion Air Decreases
Stoichiometric Combustion Optimum ratio of combustion air to fuel flow Optimum ratio of combustion air to fuel flow –Does not exist Some excess air is required Some excess air is required –Want to minimize excess air –Amount of excess air dependent on boiler load Proper Air to fuel control requires mass flow measurement of air and fuel flow rates. Proper Air to fuel control requires mass flow measurement of air and fuel flow rates.
Combustion Air DP flow measurement typically used DP flow measurement typically used –Flow element: Averaging pitot tube Averaging pitot tube Pressure drop around an obstruction in the duct Pressure drop around an obstruction in the duct Venturi Venturi
DP - Combustion Air Flow Limitations: Limitations: Require pressure and temperature compensation to get mass flow Require pressure and temperature compensation to get mass flow Loss of signal at low flow rates Loss of signal at low flow rates Typical velocity in duct gives 1 w.g. Typical velocity in duct gives 1 w.g. pressure drop. Square root relationship between Square root relationship between flow and signal Limits turndown Limits turndown Advantages: Advantages: –Sample multiple points or entire flow entire flow
Thermal – Combustion Air Flow Advantages: Advantages: –Measures mass flow without pressure or temperature compensation Desired for combustion air to fuel ratio Desired for combustion air to fuel ratio –Excellent low flow sensitivity –High turndown capabilities Disadvantages: Disadvantages: –Single point measurement How representative is flow measurement How representative is flow measurement Multi point averaging arrays Multi point averaging arrays –Accuracy limitations due to straight run/flow profile However, repeatability is required However, repeatability is required
Combustion Air - Conclusion Suitable for small ducts Suitable for small ducts Not suitable for large ducts Not suitable for large ducts
Compressed Air DOE estimates 30% compressed air produced is lost due to leakage DOE estimates 30% compressed air produced is lost due to leakage –¼ leak at 100 psi = 100 CFM $8,000 - $20,000 per year $8,000 - $20,000 per year Cost Allocation Cost Allocation Compressor efficiency Compressor efficiency
Flare/Vent Varying gas composition Natural Gas Natural Gas Tank venting (Gas Production) Tank venting (Gas Production) Process Operations (CPI/HPI) Process Operations (CPI/HPI) –Refineries 40 CFR part 60, subpart Ja (modified August 2012) 40 CFR part 60, subpart Ja (modified August 2012) –Emissions on non-emergency flares
Sage Selling Points Compact enclosure Compact enclosure –Prime - Smaller enclosure than other suppliers Insitu calibration verification Insitu calibration verification Calibration on actual gas Calibration on actual gas –Ability to provide adjustment factors for varying gas composition –Competitive calibration prices –Good delivery Flow conditioner Flow conditioner Great organization – good people to work with Great organization – good people to work with
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