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How and why lying is an art…

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1 How and why lying is an art…
Psychology of Lying How and why lying is an art…

2 Psychology of Lying Three criteria relevant to a statement be classified as a lie: The statement is false. Its producer believes it to be false. It is intended that others believe it to be true. - Raison d’etre (1987)

3 Psychology of Lying Forensic Psychology: Deception Theory:
4 Theories that suit a liar Deception Theory: - Many theoretical perspectives - 3 such examples: 1. Zuckerman, DePaulo, & Rosenthal’s (1981) multiple factor model 2. DePaulo’s Self-Presentational Perspective 3. Buller and Burgoon’s Interpersonal Deception Theory (IDT) (1996)

4 Psychology of Lying 4 Theories that suit a liar (con’t) “Fact that people lie will not affect their behavior, speech content, or physiological responses

5 Psychology of Lying 2. People’s Views on How Liars Respond
4 Theories that suit a liar (con’t) 2. People’s Views on How Liars Respond **With exception of prisoners, people do not differ in their beliefs about deception ** Beliefs: a) Liars will react nervously by “looking away” (Global Deception Team, 2006) b) Liars experience cognitive load when telling convincing lies c) People find “odd responses,” ones that vary from the normal expectations, suspicious (Bond, Omar, Pitre, Lashley, Skaggs, & Kirk, 1992)

6 Psychology of Lying 3. Impression Formation Theory
4 Theories that suit a liar (con’t) 3. Impression Formation Theory Impressions & judgments are made quickly & intuitively, and just a mere glance of another person can trigger such impressions and judgments (Ambady, Bernieri, & Richeson, 2000) Physical appearance is important Good looking people are typically thought of as more honest (Aune, Levine, Ching, & Yoshimoto, 1993; Bull, 2004; Bull & Rumsey, 1988)

7 Psychology of Lying 4. Persuasion Theory
4 Theories that suit a liar (con’t) 4. Persuasion Theory - Effective communication is key to successful lying, b/c perceived as “likeable” - Characteristics included in this theory: * Direct eye gaze *Smiling *Head nodding * Leaning forward * Posture mirroring

8 Psychology of Lying Characteristics of Good Liars
Personality: Manipulators, Actors, Expressive People Behavior: Honesty, Likeability, Natural Performers Emotions: Lack of feelings of Guilt & Fear, Ability to Camouflage emotions

9 Psychology of Lying Characteristics of Good Liars (con’t)
- Cognitive Load: Do not experience much cognitive load - Decoding Skills: Liars adapt their responses if responses raise suspicions in receiver

10 Psychology of Lying Eye Accessing Cues
“Neuro-Linguistic Programming” – Dr. Derren Brown Eye Accessing Cues Up and to the Left – Visualizing a true image Up and to the Right - Putting together a false image Down and to the Left – True dialog Down and to the Right – Emotion Straight to the Left – Sounds: True sound/Voice Straight to the Right – Creating a sound/Voice

11 Psychology of Lying What if you cannot see them/their eyes?
Things to look for: Fast talking - Sound nervous/anxious Cough/clear throat for no reason Laugh softly for no reason – Overly persuasive Listen to their facts, then run story by them again Voice talks in higher pitch ** Common Behaviors – Agitation & Anxiousness

12 Psychology of Lying Compulsive Liars
- Pseudo logia fantastica – behavior of habitual/compulsive lying Robert Reich, M.D.- “It has to do with self-esteem. You want to be like someone else because you aren’t very happy with yourself.”

13 Psychology of Lying Extra Tips Inconsistencies
Catch liars off guard – Ask unexpected questions Look for changes from normal behavior Look for Insincere Emotion – Angry face with a smile Pay attention to Gut Reaction Watch for very quick reactions-most won’t see Look for Contradictions A Sense of Unease Too much Detail Logic Has it’s Place

14 Psychology of Lying References
lying and deception – raison detre, Penguin Book of Lies, (Published 1987), Telling Lies, : E56-E57

15 Psychology of Lying References (con’t)

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