Nonverbal Communication Definition: The way in which people communicate, intentionally or unintentionally, without words Types of nonverbal communication: facial expressions, tones of voice, gestures, body position and movement, touch, and eye gaze
Uses of Nonverbal Communication 1) 1) Express emotion 2) 2) Convey attitudes 3) 3) Communicate personality traits 4) 4) Facilitate, or modify verbal communication 5) 5) Repeat, or compliment the spoken language 6) 6) Contradict verbal communication 7) 7) Substitute for the verbal message
Women are better encoders and decoders of nonverbal cues. Why?
Nonverbal Behavior (Kraut & Johnson, 1979) A. Smiling While Bowling Percent of Time Smiling B. Smiling While Watching Hockey
Facial Displays are Socially Motivated Fridlund (1991) Participants viewed funny film under 1 of 4 conditions Alone Alone Friend in other room doing another task Friend in other room doing another task Friend in other room watching same film Friend in other room watching same film Friend in room with you Friend in room with you Measures: Smiling (EMG) and self-reported happiness What was found??
It is relatively easy to control facial expressions so we look to other nonverbal cues to provide additional information: Eye contact Body movements Posture (and gait) Touching (and interpersonal distance)
Nonverbal “Leakage” Definition: the unintentional transmission of information through nonverbal channels of communication. Might occur because (a)don’t think to control nonverbals (b) aren’t able to control nonverbals (c) try too hard to control Voice leaks more easily Women pick up on “leaks” more than men
DePaulo 2003 Liars: Make a more negative impression and are more tense Less forthcoming than truth tellers Tell less compelling tales Made statements that were not as plausible, logical, or consistent with other statements Provided fewer details in their statements Their stories include fewer ordinary imperfections and unusual contents. Were less likely to admit a lack of memory Made fewer spontaneous corrections