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RIFLE: a Research Instrument for FLash Evaluation AT Active Technologies.

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Presentation on theme: "RIFLE: a Research Instrument for FLash Evaluation AT Active Technologies."— Presentation transcript:

1 RIFLE: a Research Instrument for FLash Evaluation AT Active Technologies

2 Active Technologies - RIFLE demo - October 2003 DEMO This file contains a demo of RIFLEs use RIFLEs hardware features, software structure, and performances are shown in the Rifle presentation file This demo has been designed for Office 2002, but it may run quite well under Office 2000

3 Active Technologies - RIFLE demo - October 2003 Index DUT parameters and constrains definitions ( 1 min. 30) DUT parameters and constrains definitions Standard measurements execution ( 8 min 15) Standard measurements execution Waveform generation, program/erase ( 3 min 50)Waveform generation, program/erase Preparation and execution of customized cycles ( 4 min. 45) Preparation and execution of customized cycles Post-cycle data analysis ( 3 min.) Post-cycle data analysis End of presentation Select the section to visit by clicking on the section name Select the section to visit by clicking on the section name

4 Active Technologies - RIFLE demo - October 2003 Selecting a DUT When RIFLE is started, the user can select among already installed DUT, or modify an already installed DUT, or create a new DUT

5 Active Technologies - RIFLE demo - October 2003 DUT parameter and constrains definition DUT parameters, organization, structure, constrains, allowed measurements must be defined just once They can be modified at any time

6 Active Technologies - RIFLE demo - October 2003 DUT parameter and constrains definition All RIFLEs functions may be executed on specific working areas defined by the user The working area meaning and limits are strictly related to the device architecture and organization

7 Active Technologies - RIFLE demo - October 2003 DUT parameter and constrains definition Voltage constrains and specific enables are set for any cell terminal

8 Active Technologies - RIFLE demo - October 2003 DUT parameter and constrains definition Constrains for PMU (Precise Measuring Unit) and power supply are also here defined

9 Active Technologies - RIFLE demo - October 2003 DUT parameter and constrains definition Among the available RIFLE functions, the user can select the ones to be activated for the specific DUT…

10 Active Technologies - RIFLE demo - October 2003 DUT parameter and constrains definition … as well as specific function parameters …

11 Active Technologies - RIFLE demo - October 2003 DUT parameter and constrains definition … or working areas properties …

12 Active Technologies - RIFLE demo - October 2003 DUT parameter and constrains definition … and post-analysis functions to be executed after cycling

13 Active Technologies - RIFLE demo - October 2003 End of Section Make your choice by using the PC mouse Make your choice by using the PC mouse Index page Index page End of presentation End of presentation

14 Active Technologies - RIFLE demo - October 2003 Executing standard measurements Any measurement can be set up and launched in a completely graphical environment developed under the National Instruments LabVIEW platform

15 Active Technologies - RIFLE demo - October 2003 Executing standard measurements By means of a navigator window it is possible to set up the parameters for any measurement (program, erase, IV measures, distributions and maps, stresses,..), to browse among 2D and 3D maps and distributions of threshold voltages or current gains, 2D and 3D I-V characteristics

16 Active Technologies - RIFLE demo - October 2003 Executing standard measurements For any measurement type specific working areas can be defined User defined combinations of working areas will be activated at run-time

17 Active Technologies - RIFLE demo - October 2003 Parameters setting For any measurement, the appropriate setting can be chosen by the user or loadedfrom the PC memory Setting can also be saved for further applications or saved as new default For example, for a threshold distribution…

18 Active Technologies - RIFLE demo - October 2003 Parameters setting The user can select the working areas where a distribution is to be calculated

19 Active Technologies - RIFLE demo - October 2003 Parameters setting Initial, final voltage and voltage step can be chosen by the user

20 Active Technologies - RIFLE demo - October 2003 Parameters setting Additional options can be defined when implementing the DUT driver (for example, calculate the threshold distribution on selected pads)

21 Active Technologies - RIFLE demo - October 2003 Parameters setting Distribution settings can be loaded from the PC memory, saved for further applications or saved as new default

22 Active Technologies - RIFLE demo - October 2003 Threshold distributions Threshold distributions can be easily calculated They are plotted just at the end of the measure

23 Active Technologies - RIFLE demo - October 2003 Threshold distributions Statistical information are immediately available: distribution width distribution mean value distribution standard deviation total number of cell within the range number of cells out of range

24 Active Technologies - RIFLE demo - October 2003 Threshold distributions Distributions can also be loaded, saved, or saved as ASCII file for further analysis Also for all the other measurement types (maps, IV characteristics, identification of set of cells, …) the results can be loaded or saved

25 Active Technologies - RIFLE demo - October 2003 Threshold distributions Several distributions can be plotted simultaneously

26 Active Technologies - RIFLE demo - October 2003 Threshold distributions Distributions can be plotted in linear …

27 Active Technologies - RIFLE demo - October 2003 Threshold distributions … or in log scale

28 Active Technologies - RIFLE demo - October 2003 Threshold distributions as cumulative distributions…

29 Active Technologies - RIFLE demo - October 2003 Threshold distributions … or log-normal distributions

30 Active Technologies - RIFLE demo - October 2003 Threshold maps Threshold maps can be calculated on selected working areas and immediately plotted

31 Active Technologies - RIFLE demo - October 2003 Threshold maps All LabVIEW graphic potentialities can be used for zoom, change of scale, …

32 Active Technologies - RIFLE demo - October 2003 Threshold maps Information (address and threshold range) of the cell at red cursor are immediately available

33 Active Technologies - RIFLE demo - October 2003 Threshold maps Red cursor can be moved by the PC mouse or forced in a cell location by entering its coordinates

34 Active Technologies - RIFLE demo - October 2003 Threshold maps The two yellow cursors can be used to select an area for a 3D representation

35 Active Technologies - RIFLE demo - October 2003 Threshold maps Yellow cursors can be moved by the PC mouse or forced in two cell locations by entering their coordinates

36 Active Technologies - RIFLE demo - October 2003 Threshold maps A 3D zoom can be simply performed at a mouse click

37 Active Technologies - RIFLE demo - October 2003 Threshold maps The 3D representation can also be plotted in the main graphic area

38 Active Technologies - RIFLE demo - October 2003 Threshold maps All LabVIEW graphic potentialities can be used for graph rotation, change of scale,…

39 Active Technologies - RIFLE demo - October 2003 Identification of set of cells Cells satisfying specific criteria can be immediately identified in a user-selected working area

40 Active Technologies - RIFLE demo - October 2003 Identification of set of cells Preinstalled criteria are: N cells with the lowest or highest threshold N cells at a specified threshold Cells below or above a specified threshold Cells in a specified threshold range N random cells (to be used as a reference set)

41 Active Technologies - RIFLE demo - October 2003 Identification of set of cells Addresses and thresholds of the cells satisfying the selected criterion are listed and their physical location is shown

42 Active Technologies - RIFLE demo - October 2003 Identification of set of cells By clicking on a list row, the physical position of the selected cell is shown

43 Active Technologies - RIFLE demo - October 2003 IV characteristics 2D and 3D characteristics can be measured for any matrix or reference cell Gate voltages and drain voltages (for 3D characteristics) are chosen by the user Cell address is also selected by the user

44 Active Technologies - RIFLE demo - October D IV characteristic Several characteristics can be plotted simultaneously

45 Active Technologies - RIFLE demo - October D IV characteristic All LabVIEW graphic potentialities can be used for graph rotation, change of scale,…

46 Active Technologies - RIFLE demo - October 2003 Single cell threshold calculation The threshold voltage of any user-selected cell can be immediately calculated Threshold voltage is calculated as the gate voltage corresponding to a user-defined drain current

47 Active Technologies - RIFLE demo - October 2003 Single cell threshold calculation

48 Active Technologies - RIFLE demo - October 2003 Current and Gain measurements All measurements shown for threshold voltages (distributions, maps, single cell,…) can be performed for current and current gain

49 Active Technologies - RIFLE demo - October 2003 Drain and Gate stresses Drain stress and gate stress can be easily activated For example, for a drain stress…

50 Active Technologies - RIFLE demo - October 2003 Drain and Gate stresses for the selected working area, drain voltage and stress duration can be chosen by the user

51 Active Technologies - RIFLE demo - October 2003 Drain and Gate stresses Additional options can be defined when implementing the DUT driver

52 Active Technologies - RIFLE demo - October 2003 End of Section Make your choice by using the PC mouse Make your choice by using the PC mouse Index page Index page End of presentation End of presentation

53 Active Technologies - RIFLE demo - October 2003 Waveform editing For test chips and for many commercial DUT used in test mode, it is important to evaluate the impact on performance and reliability of different waveforms applied during writing operations RIFLE allows editing fully arbitrary waveforms The waveforms will be applied to the device as they are edited

54 Active Technologies - RIFLE demo - October 2003 Waveform editing Users can select the pulse to edit, to load or to save Pulses can also be saved as default pulses

55 Active Technologies - RIFLE demo - October 2003 Waveform editing All pulses can be loaded or saved together

56 Active Technologies - RIFLE demo - October 2003 Waveform editing A waveform is formed by many parts Each part can be edited separately Each part can have a linear shape, or exponential, gaussian, sinusoidal, logarithmic shape

57 Active Technologies - RIFLE demo - October 2003 Waveform editing For each part, the initial and final voltages, the time duration and its shape must be chosen

58 Active Technologies - RIFLE demo - October 2003 Waveform editing Any set of parts can be repeated…

59 Active Technologies - RIFLE demo - October 2003 Waveform editing Any set of parts can be repeated…

60 Active Technologies - RIFLE demo - October 2003 Waveform editing Any single part of the repetition can be edited

61 Active Technologies - RIFLE demo - October 2003 Programming For programming, several options are available Other advanced options can be implemented when writing the DUT driver Waveforms to be applied for programming can be edited as previously shown

62 Active Technologies - RIFLE demo - October 2003 Programming The maximum number of programming pulses and the threshold voltage for program verify (if activated) can be entered by the user

63 Active Technologies - RIFLE demo - October 2003 Programming Pulses with increasing (or decreasing) voltages can be applied In that case, the first pulse is the edited one, and the voltage step must be entered

64 Active Technologies - RIFLE demo - October 2003 Programming Several options can be chosen as program report For example, the total number of pulses and information on failed cells

65 Active Technologies - RIFLE demo - October 2003 Programming A current probe can be connected to any waveform generator, to show its current as in an oscilloscope Probe characteristics can be set by the user

66 Active Technologies - RIFLE demo - October 2003 Programming Specific options can be added for the DUT…

67 Active Technologies - RIFLE demo - October 2003 Programming for example, verify options, current reference, programming parallelism, pad selection

68 Active Technologies - RIFLE demo - October 2003 Programming Fail/No fail information are immediately shown at the end of programming Other information such as programming time, total number of pulses, number of failed cells (if any) are also shown

69 Active Technologies - RIFLE demo - October 2003 Programming In case of failure, the location of unprogrammed cells is shown

70 Active Technologies - RIFLE demo - October 2003 Programming If the current probe is enabled, the current absorbed by the selected generator is plotted

71 Active Technologies - RIFLE demo - October 2003 Erasing Erasing is performed exactly as programming Several advanced options can be activated when creating the DUT driver

72 Active Technologies - RIFLE demo - October 2003 Erasing For example, bulk or source erase

73 Active Technologies - RIFLE demo - October 2003 End of Section Make your choice by using the PC mouse Make your choice by using the PC mouse Index page Index page End of presentation End of presentation

74 Active Technologies - RIFLE demo - October 2003 Cycling The basic operations implemented for the DUT can be combined to create complex automated measurement cycles

75 Active Technologies - RIFLE demo - October 2003 Cycling By means of the navigator window, it is possible to edit a cycle, to select the data analysis to be performed and to start a cycle

76 Active Technologies - RIFLE demo - October 2003 Cycling Creating a new cycle or editing an already saved cycle requires basic knowledge of the National Instruments LabVIEW software

77 Active Technologies - RIFLE demo - October 2003 Cycling Icons representing particular basic operations have been created and placed in the RIFLE icon of the LabVIEW function palette

78 Active Technologies - RIFLE demo - October 2003 Cycling Calculate a threshold distribution For example….

79 Active Technologies - RIFLE demo - October 2003 Cycling Calculate a gain distribution

80 Active Technologies - RIFLE demo - October 2003 Cycling Calculate a threshold map

81 Active Technologies - RIFLE demo - October 2003 Cycling Threshold distribution & map

82 Active Technologies - RIFLE demo - October 2003 Cycling Erase

83 Active Technologies - RIFLE demo - October 2003 Cycling Cycle (Program/erase)

84 Active Technologies - RIFLE demo - October 2003 Cycling Identify a subset of cells

85 Active Technologies - RIFLE demo - October 2003 Cycling Gate stress

86 Active Technologies - RIFLE demo - October 2003 Creating a new cycle A cycle is simply created by p pp picking objects representing a particular operation f ff from the icons palette and p pp placing and l ll linking them together to form a block diagram

87 Active Technologies - RIFLE demo - October 2003 Creating a new cycle The following example will be created : 1.Calculation of the threshold distribution for a working area 2.Identification of the 100 cells with the lowest threshold 3.Cells belonging to the working area are than cycled (program + erase) for 1000 times 4.At the end of each erasing operation, the thresholds of the previously marked cells are calculated and saved 5.At the end of the cycle, a new threshold distribution is calculated

88 Active Technologies - RIFLE demo - October 2003 The icon representing the threshold distribution is picked from the palette and placed in a.vi diagram Creating a new cycle

89 Active Technologies - RIFLE demo - October 2003 Creating a new cycle The parameters for the threshold distribution are entered by the user Standard LabVIEW syntax is used Results are automatically saved

90 Active Technologies - RIFLE demo - October 2003 Creating a new cycle The icon representing the identification of set of cells is picked from the toolbar and added in the.vi diagram

91 Active Technologies - RIFLE demo - October 2003 Creating a new cycle The parameters for the subset identification are entered by the user

92 Active Technologies - RIFLE demo - October 2003 Creating a new cycle Also the file name where addresses and thresholds are to be saved is entered by the user

93 Active Technologies - RIFLE demo - October 2003 Creating a new cycle The complete.vi diagram is here shown

94 Active Technologies - RIFLE demo - October 2003 Creating a new cycle Icons identifying program-erase cycles and follow identified cells…

95 Active Technologies - RIFLE demo - October 2003 Creating a new cycle …are inserted in a cycle to be repeated 1000 times

96 Active Technologies - RIFLE demo - October 2003 Creating a new cycle Finally, an icon for threshold distribution is placed. The same parameters applied to the first distribution are here considered

97 Active Technologies - RIFLE demo - October 2003 Creating a new cycle When the editing phase is terminated, the entire cycle is saved with a name chosen by the user Already saved cycles can be edited and saved with different names

98 Active Technologies - RIFLE demo - October 2003 Running a cycle The selected cycle can be easily started

99 Active Technologies - RIFLE demo - October 2003 Running a cycle Cycle duration is estimated before execution. The red bar gives an idea of the elapsed and remaining times

100 Active Technologies - RIFLE demo - October 2003 Running a cycle End of cycle can be notified to the user by means of an or a SMS

101 Active Technologies - RIFLE demo - October 2003 Results saving Results are saved in a directory with the same name of the cycle Subdirectories are automatically created, one for any measurement type

102 Active Technologies - RIFLE demo - October 2003 Results saving When several threshold distributions (or maps) are calculated, they are automatically saved with progressive names Specific file names can be selected by the user during cycle editing

103 Active Technologies - RIFLE demo - October 2003 End of Section Make your choice by using the PC mouse Make your choice by using the PC mouse Index page Index page End of presentation End of presentation

104 Active Technologies - RIFLE demo - October 2003 Post-cycle Data Analysis Data analysis can be started by using the same navigator window used for standard measurements and cycle editing

105 Active Technologies - RIFLE demo - October 2003 Threshold evolution during cycling The threshold evolution of the selected cell is automatically plotted

106 Active Technologies - RIFLE demo - October 2003 File name where data are saved is entered by the user Data can be analyzed at any time Threshold evolution during cycling

107 Active Technologies - RIFLE demo - October 2003 Threshold evolution during cycling Criteria used for subset identification are reported for user convenience

108 Active Technologies - RIFLE demo - October 2003 Threshold evolution during cycling Cells can be sorted by different criteria: Standard deviation Maximum V during cycle Both ascending or descending sorting is considered

109 Active Technologies - RIFLE demo - October 2003 Threshold evolution during cycling For any selected cell, its address is shown

110 Active Technologies - RIFLE demo - October 2003 Threshold evolution during cycling Cumulative information on the identified set can be plotted…

111 Active Technologies - RIFLE demo - October 2003 Threshold evolution during cycling … the graph of the standard deviation for any cell of the identified set of cells is here shown, sorted in ascending order

112 Active Technologies - RIFLE demo - October 2003 Location and count maps Other graph types are available to analyze data on identified subset of cells Location maps show the location within the array of the cells identified during a cycle. When a set is identified at any cycle, the cell location at each cycle is shown When sets of cells are identified at any cycle, count maps show how many times cells have been identified

113 Active Technologies - RIFLE demo - October 2003 Location map In this example, the 1000 cells with the lowest thresholds have been identified at each cycle

114 Active Technologies - RIFLE demo - October 2003 Location map The cycle number and the corresponding location map can be changed without loading new data The location of all the cells identified during cycling can be shown at the same time using the intersection mode option

115 Active Technologies - RIFLE demo - October 2003 Count map Count maps show the location of all cells identified during cycling together with their repetition number

116 Active Technologies - RIFLE demo - October 2003 Erase/program history Several information concerning program and erasing during cycling can be saved and are immediately available

117 Active Technologies - RIFLE demo - October 2003 Erase/program history For example, fail/no fail indication at each cycle can be plotted

118 Active Technologies - RIFLE demo - October 2003 Erase/program history Other more detailed information, as the number of pulses at each cycle, are available

119 Active Technologies - RIFLE demo - October 2003 Advanced analysis tool Other analysis tools are already available In addition, users can add analysis tools to be used for specific applications, always using the standard LabVIEW language

120 Active Technologies - RIFLE demo - October 2003 End of Section Make your choice by using the PC mouse Make your choice by using the PC mouse Index page Index page End of presentation End of presentation

121 Active Technologies - RIFLE demo - October 2003 The staff of Active Technologies thanks you for your kind attention


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