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Communicative Learner-Centred Grammar Peter Lucantoni
Peter Lucantoni Started teaching in 1979 in UK, lived and worked in Europe and Middle East, now based in Cyprus Author, Educational Consultant & Teacher Trainer for Cambridge University Press Cambridge TKT, CELTYL, CELTA & DELTA trainer and Cambridge CELTYL assessor Examiner for Cambridge ESOL speaking examinations Classroom teacher
Overview What is grammar? What is communicative grammar? CLT Rod Batstone Activities
What is grammar? Discuss with your colleagues and try to agree on a working definition.
What is grammar? system combining grammatical roles meaning Grammar is a set of rules for ………. words to express ……….. It is the ………. of a language. Words are given labels to help us to identify their ………..
Grammar is a set of rules for combining words to express meaning. It is the system of a language. Words are given labels to help us to identify their grammatical roles. What is grammar?
Look at these phrases and comment on them: 1 If they had known the answer, 2 youll learn how to swim. What is grammar?
What is communicative grammar? Communicative grammar is based on the communicative approach to the teaching of a second language. Language structures must not be taught in isolation but integrated to the four skills of language. In this way, a structure is practiced orally and in written form. http://wiki.answers.com/Q/What_is_the_definition_of_communicative_grammar
Grammatical patterns must not only be learned at the utterance level but at the discourse level; the main objective focuses on the development of communicative grammatical competence, which is understood as the ability to use and understand a structure in a variety of situations spontaneously. http://wiki.answers.com/Q/What_is_the_definition_of_communicative_gra mmar What is communicative grammar?
There needs to be an active involvement in the learning process Examples from texts need to be isolated and used as a basis for tasks Tasks should focus on both concept and form of target grammar Students should be encouraged to find other examples and work out rules for themselves Adapted from: Thacker with Puchta & Stranks, English in Mind Teachers Book 2, Cambridge University Press, 2009
What is communicative language teaching? Discuss with your colleagues and try to agree on a definition.
Communicative language teaching can be understood as a set of principles about the goals of language teaching, how learners learn a language, the kinds of classroom activities that best facilitate learning, and the roles of teachers and learners in the classroom. Jack Richards, Communicative Language Teaching Today, Cambridge University Press, 2006
CLT is not a method CLT is best considered an approach rather than a method (Richards & Rogers) Teachers are free to interpret the rules Wide variety of classroom techniques feasible Should move us away from learners who are structurally competent but communicatively incompetent (Johnson 1981)
However … it is clearly not possible to engage in purposeful communication in a language without being able to formulate the structures of that language as well (McDonough & Shaw 2000: 25)
However … it is essential for teachers to interpret the rules and strike a balance between consolidating structures and developing communicative competence in their E2L students (Lucantoni 2002: 14) What is CLT?
We need to ensure that learning is focused on tasks and problem-solving Learners need to be interacting with someone else (but teachers should not regard learners working on their own as bad!)
Learners learn to use language already acquired to complete tasks Teachers should provide support & assistance in language areas where learners have problems
Language without grammar would … leave us seriously handicapped (Batstone, 2000) Why?
Noticing – an active process in which learners become aware of structure and notice connections between form and meaning Structuring – bringing new grammar patterns into learners internal grammars. Usually requires controlled practice Procedurising – making the new grammar ready for instant and fluent use in communication Rob Batstone, Grammar, OUP 2000
From letters to grammar Listen to the four letters Think of a four-word phrase that is grammatical and meaningful Use each letter as the first letter of a word. The order of the letters is not important. Example: A, D, I, F A day in France, Fried dates are incredible, I ate Davids fruit
G P O S H Y T V C K L W In groups, choose 4 letters and give them to another group to make a phrase From letters to grammar
The world Listen to the words Think about in which country you can write them Example: tea could go in Lebanon because the tea is good there, or in England because the English are famous for drinking it Discuss with your partners and give reasons for your choices
Look at the talk skeleton and make notes about your product Prepare and deliver your presentation to the class Presenting a new product
Thank you very much for coming to our presentation. Our wonderful new product is called ………. Im going to tell you about it. Afterwards, you can ask questions. The ………. is fantastic! Firstly ………. Secondly ………. Also ………. And ………. Finally ………. We believe that our ………. is ………. I have time to answer two or three questions now Thank you all for listening!
Numbers and sizes ratios This activity focuses on general knowledge and guessing about numbers and size Learners have the chance to produce their own version of the activity Adapted from an activity by Bob Obee in The Grammar Activity Book, Cambridge University Press, 2009
Put learners into groups of three On a piece of paper, one learner in group writes these ratios: 1:1, 1:2, 1:3, 1:4, 1:5, 1:6, 1:7, 1:8, 1:9, 1:10 Learners look at comparisons on board/handout and discuss how big the difference is between the comparisons Then match the comparison to the appropriate ratio on their piece of paper Finally, learners write a sentence expression the ratio/comparison
Numbers and sizes ratios EXAMPLE On board/handout: worlds tallest man / worlds shortest man oldest snake / oldest man Paris, distance from London / Athens, distance from London age of Aztec pyramids / age of Egyptian pyramids etc
Numbers and sizes ratios 1:3worlds tallest man / worlds shortest man The worlds tallest man is three times as tall as the worlds shortest man Winner is group that gets highest numbers of answers in the correct ratio slots Learners can then prepare their own comparisons and ratios lists, and exchange
Mistakes maze This activity gives learners an opportunity to focus on identifying grammar mistakes, in order to make their way through a maze Furthermore, learners work on correcting grammar mistakes, and can also create their own mistakes maze
IN. I live with my mum and dad on number 20. 1. Ive got a letter from my cousin. 2. Hes quite interested at cooking. 3. Whats the capital of Italy? 4. Have you got my new CD? 5. Theyre Mr Saleems books. 6. There are lots of interestings things to do in Beirut. 7. Has he got short curly hair?
8. Ahmed and I are both live in the same house. 9. Said doesnt like meat. 10. Giraffes clean sometimes their ears with their tongues. 11. Im wearing my green and yellow shirt. 12. Im going to drawing that dinosaur. 13. At first, did they had a lot to eat? 14. Our bus was late this night.
Who will / wont, might / may not …? This activity practises the unit structures but it also provides reading and writing skills development in a communicative and learner-centred manner
Age26 HomeBeirut HobbiesPlays piano JobDoctor SpeaksArabic, English & some Japanese OtherDislikes pets DreamsFly to the moon AMINA
Age63 HomeTripoli HobbiesWeightlifting JobAccountant SpeaksArabic, Greek OtherVegetarian, cant drive DreamGo to China, own a Ferrari HASAN
1 help move heavy furniture? 2 play a song? 3 advise you about your health? 4 buy a fast car? 5 entertain a visitor from Greece? 6 drive you to the airport? 7 eat meat? 8 tell you about your finances? Who will / wont, might / may not …?
Amina is 26 and lives in Beirut. In her free time she loves music and plays the piano … Amina is 26 but Hasan is 37 years older. They both live in Lebanon but Amina lives in Beirut while Hasan lives in Tripoli … Who will / wont, might / may not …?
In this activity, learners look at a text which contains nonsense words, and try to make sense of it from a grammatical perspective In addition, they use their knowledge of grammar in order to create the story Sloobie
A sloobie is a brumpting silop which draches in a layod. It okuls from Klooblie, a zert in Fring. In order to ning a sloobie, the layod is larted by a ticfrous layoder. Sloobie
Use these words: country, fish, dancing, river, comes, Asia, lives A sloobie is a brumpting silop. It draches in a layod. It okuls from Klooblie. Klooblie is a zert in Fring.
Planning and micro teaching Bearing in mind both the theory and the practical methods discussed in this workshop, design a communicative learner-centred activity to practise one of the following grammar areas, or one of your own choice: Time adverbs with simple past Conjunctions Past perfect Prepositional phrases Reported questions
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