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Types of Relative Clauses Defining Non-defining. THE LINKERS Basic: THAT WHO WHICH (OMISSION) ADVERBIALS: WHERE WHY WHEN WHOSE DEFINING NON-DEFINING.

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Presentation on theme: "Types of Relative Clauses Defining Non-defining. THE LINKERS Basic: THAT WHO WHICH (OMISSION) ADVERBIALS: WHERE WHY WHEN WHOSE DEFINING NON-DEFINING."— Presentation transcript:

1 Types of Relative Clauses Defining Non-defining

2 THE LINKERS Basic: THAT WHO WHICH (OMISSION) ADVERBIALS: WHERE WHY WHEN WHOSE DEFINING NON-DEFINING

3 Defining or Non-defining? When the relative clause is necessary to understand the sentence completely. When the relative clause adds some extra information but it is not essential to understand. DEFINING NON- DEFINING

4 Defining Clauses

5 Relative Omission We can omit if and only if: We can omit if and only if: the relative clause is Defining. the relative is not adverbial the relative is not subject of the clause there is no preposition before the relative. I saw the car you told me about on tv yes NO

6 Non-Defining It is always a clause referred to a person, thing or animal totally identified. Mr. Smith, who lives in Norwich, was once my professor. The White House, where the president of the USA lives, is in Washington. Mickey Mouse, which is a very famous pet, has been on tv for many years. remember: always between commas

7 Averbial Relatives TIME when I remember the times when we danced together at the disco PLACE where The city where I study is not my hometown REASON why – We will never know the reason why she didn't come to the party POSSESION whose – The girl whose parents you talked to were my work collegues.

8 Prepositions in relative clauses The relative pronouns which and whom can function as the object of a preposition, as the examples set below: the room in which we are staying an achievement of which I am very proud the man with whom she has an affair the report to which he is referring However this use sounds rather formal, and it is much more common to place the preposition towards the end of the clause rather than before the relative pronoun, as in e.g.: the room which we are staying in an achievement which I am very proud of the man who she has an affair with the report which he is referring to

9 the room we are staying in an achievement I am very proud of the man she has an affair with the report he is referring to and very often the relative pronoun is left out altogether, as in e.g.:

10 Reduced Relative Clause A. The man who is in the house likes to watch television all day. B. The man in the house likes to watch television all day. A. The man who is swimming in the lake is my father. B. The man swimming in the lake is my father. A. The survey which was conducted by the government did not indicate true public opinion. B. The survey conducted by the government did not indicate true public opinion. A. This is the house that Jack built. B. This is the house Jack built.

11 1. they are followed by a prepositional phrase. A. The man who is in the house likes to watch television all day. B. The man in the house likes to watch television all day. A. The books that are on the desk are mine. B. The books on the desk are mine.

12 2. the main verb in the relative clause is progressive. A. The man who is swimming in the lake is my father. B. The man swimming in the lake is my father. A. The clothes that are lying on the floor belong to me. B. The clothes lying on the floor belong to me.

13 3. the main verb in the relative clause is passive. A. The survey which was conducted by the government did not indicate true public opinion. B. The survey conducted by the government did not indicate true public opinion. A. The food that was eaten by the mice was poisonous. B. The food eaten by the mice was poisonous.

14 4. The relative pronoun can be deleted if it isnt the subject of the relative clause: A. This is the house that Jack built. B. This is the house Jack built. A. The person whom you see is my father. B. The person you see is my father. A. This is the place where I live. B. This is the place I live in. (where= in which, at which)


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