Presentation on theme: "RELATIVE CLAUSES DEFINING & NON-DEFINING. RELATIVE CLAUSES Defining relative clauses: You use defining relative clauses to say exactly which person or."— Presentation transcript:
RELATIVE CLAUSES Defining relative clauses: You use defining relative clauses to say exactly which person or thing you are talking about. Defining relative clauses give information that helps to identify the person or thing you are talking about. A defining relative clause comes immediately after a noun, and needs a main clause to make a complete sentence. Defining relative clauses are usually introduced by a relative prononun such as “that”, “which”, “who”, “whom”, or “whose”. Examples: - The old woman who lived below us died last night. - The clerk who helped me was very polite. - This is the house which was built on the main road.
RELATIVE CLAUSES Non-defining relative clauses: You use non-defining relative clauses to give extra information about the person or thing you are talking about. The information is not needed to identify that person or thing. A non-defining relative clause comes immediately after a noun, and needs a main clause to make a complete sentence. Non-defining relative clauses must be introduced by a relative prononun such as “which”, “who”, “whom”, or “whose”. Examples: - My sister, who fell down the stairs last night, is still in hospital. - H. G. Wells, who was born in 1866, wrote The War of the Worlds. - I am teaching at the Selly Oak centre, which is just over the road.
Definig/ Non-defining Compare: - The miners who went on stike will be dismissed. (Only those who went on srike) - The miners, who are not well paid, went on strike. (All of them) - People who did not have a visa were not allowed into the country. (Only those who didn’t have a visa) - My parents, who did not have a visa, were not allowed into the country. (My parents) - My uncle who is a doctor lives in Asturias. (I have several ones; I’m talking about the one who is a doctor) - My uncle, who is a doctor, lives in Asturias. (I only have an uncle; he works as a doctor)
Definig/ Non-defining - The footballers who attended the annual club dinner had won two previous championships. (Only the ones who attended the dinner had won two previous championships) - The footballers, who attended the annual club dinner, had won two previous championships. (All the footballers at the dinner had won two previous championships)
RELATIVE CLAUSES Antecedent Subject Object Possesive Defining Personal _______ Non- personal who/that ______ which/ that who(m)/ that/ 0 ______ which/ that/ 0 whose ________ whose Non- defining Personal _______ Non- personal who _______ which who(m) ______ which whose ________ whose
Defining relative clauses. A) Subject Personal antecedent - The woman is very friendly. She lives next door. (subj) - The woman who/ that lives next door is very friendly. (subj) Non-personal antecedent - The car belonged to Paul. It crashed into me. (subj) - The car which/ that crashed into me belonged to Paul. (subj)
Defining relative clauses. B) Object Personal antecedent - The woman lives next door. You met her yesterday. (obj) - The woman who(m)/that you met yesterday lives next door. - The woman you met yesterday lives next door. Non-personal antecedent - The car was not for sale. I wanted to buy it. (obj) - The car which/ that I wanted to buy was not for sale. - The car I wanted to buy was not for sale.
Defining relative clauses. C) Possessive Personal antecedent: We normally use “whose” for people, not for things. - A child was crying loudly. His mother had left him - A child whose mother had left him was crying loudly.
Non-defining relative clauses. A) Subject Personal antecedent - Professor Martin was there already. He was always early. (subj) - Professor Martin, who was always early, was there already. (subj) Non-personal antecedent - British Rail said one coach was badly damaged. It has launched an enquiry. (subj) - British Rail, which has launched an enquiry. said one coach was badly damaged (subj)
Non-defining relative clauses. B) Object Personal antecedent - She was engaged to a sailor. She had met him at Brighton. - She was engaged to a sailor, whom she had met at Brighton. Non-personal antecedent - He was a man of considerable inherited wealth. He ultimately spent it on his experiments. - He was a man of considerable inherited wealth, which he ultimately spent on his experiments.
Non-defining relative clauses. C) Possessive Personal antecedent - This is Adrian. We stayed in Adrian’s house for our holidays. - This is Adrian, whose house we stayed in for our holidays.
Object of a preposition Personal Non-personal Defining prep + whom who(m)/that….prep 0 ……………prep prep+ which which/that....prep 0 ………… prep Non- defining prep+ whom prep + which
Object of a preposition Defining relative clauses Personal antecedent - Angela was the only person. I could talk to her. - Angela was the only person to whom I could talk. (Formal) - Angela was the only person who(m)/ that I could talk to. - Angela was the only person I could talk to. (Informal) Non-personal antecedent - The house was huge. We lived in it. - The house in which we lived was huge. (Formal) - The house which/ that we lived in was huge. - The house we lived in was huge.
Object of a preposition Non- defining relative clauses Personal antecedent - Jill’s favourite actor can’t act tonight. This play was especially written for him. - Jill’s favourite actor,for whom this play was especially written, can’t act tonight. Non-personal antecedent - The White House is in Washington D.C. All American presidents live in it. - The White House, in which all American presidents live, is in Washington D.C.
RELATIVE ADVERBS TIME (after “expressions of time” or time words such as “day” or “year” ) PLACE (after “expressions of place” or place words such as “room” or “street”) REASON (you use “why” after reason) Definig when where why Non- defining when where
RELATIVE ADVERBS Defining Relative Clauses Examples: Time - There had been a time when she hated all men. - This is the year when profits should increase. Place - He showed me the place where he worked. - That was the room where I did my homework. Reason - There are several reasons why we can’t do that.
RELATIVE ADVERBS Non-defining relative clauses Examples: Time - This happened in 1957, when I was still a baby. Place - She has just come back from a holiday in Crete, where Alex and I went last year.