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Unit 1 Ideological and Constitutional Origins of the United States.

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1 Unit 1 Ideological and Constitutional Origins of the United States

2 Chp 1, Sec 3 1. How did mercantilism work? Theory of mercantilism – A nation could increase its wealth and power in two ways 1. Obtaining as much gold and silver as possible 2. Establishing a favorable balance of trade – sold more than it bought.

3 Chp 1, Sec 3 1. How did mercantilism work? Colonies under mercantilism were supposed to provide materials that the mother country needed. Navigation Acts passed by Parliament in 1651, tightened this relationship, prohibiting the American colonies from trading with most other countries. Traded goods had to travel on Colonial or British ships and pass through British ports.

4 Chp 1, Sec 3 What was the general structure of colonial government? Governor (appt by Crown) (paid by Assembly – power of the purse) Advisory Council (appt by Gov.) Local Assembly (elected by landowning white males) Judges (appointed and dismissed by Gov)

5 Chp 2, Sec 3 1. What were the strengths and weaknesses of the Articles of Confederation? Weaknesses Congress could not enact and collect taxes Each state had only one vote in Congress. 9 of 13 states needed to agree to pass any law Articles required a unanimous vote to amend No executive branch to enforce the laws No national court system No national army13 separate state lacked national unity

6 Chp 2, Sec 3 1. What were the strengths and weaknesses of the Articles of Confederation? Strength: Passage of the Land Ordinance of 1785

7 Chp 2, Sec 3 2. What were the causes and consequences of Shays Rebellion? CausesConsequences Rising state taxes Farmers who were veterans of Revolutionary war could not pay rising taxes Protested foreclosure hearings Called out state militia News of rebellion caused panic throughout the nation. Need for a stronger central government Call for a Constitutional Convention in May of 1787.

8 Chp 2, Sec 3 1. How did the Land Ordinance of 1785 encourage small landowners to settle in the Northwest Territories? A minimum purchase of 1 section was equivalent to 640 acres or 1 square mile. Purchase price was $1 an acre. Sections were subdivided into quarter sections or 160 acres, just right for the typical farm of the time.

9 Chp 2, Sec 3 2. How did the ordinance encourage religions and public education? To encourage the growth of religion within the township, the surveyors set aside a full section of land. Most of the land within the section was sold to provide funds for a church and a ministers salary. Section 16 of every township was set aside for school buildings. Money raised from the sale of this section was used to build a school and hire a teacher.

10 Chp 2, Sec 3 3. What present-day states made up the Northwest Territory? Wisconsin (1848) Michigan (1837) Illinois (1818) Indiana (1816) Ohio (1803) Tennessee (1796)

11 Chp 2, Sec 3 Key Conflicts in the Constitutional Convention Strong Central Government vs. Strong States Authority derives from the people In a new plan of government, the central government should be stronger than the states. Authority derives from the states. Under a modified Articles of Confederation, the states should remain stronger than the central government.

12 Chp 2, Sec 3 Key Conflicts in the Constitutional Convention Large States vs Small States Congress should be composed of two houses. The number of delegates to both houses of Congress should be assigned according to population. A Congress of one house should be preserved. Each state should have one vote.

13 Chp 2, Sec 3 Key Conflicts in the Constitutional Convention North vs South Slaves should not be counted when deciding the number of congressional delegates. Slaves should be counted when levying taxes. Slaves should be counted when determining congressional representation. Slaves should not be counted when levying taxes.

14 Chp 2, Sec 3 C. In what ways did the Great Compromise resolve certain problems even as it created new ones. It resolved the problem of the potentially unequal representation of states in Congress, but it created the problem of how to count slaves as part of a states population. 1. Representation in Congress Senate – Equal Representation House of Representatives – Representation based on population 2. 3/5 th Compromise For every 5 slaves, 3 would be counted for representation. Questions the current definition of slaves as property

15 Purposes of the Constitution Establish Legitimacy Legitimacy – right to rule Framers had to demonstrate that the new government met the standards of legitimacy as set forth in the Declaration of Independence. Create Appropriate Structures Create the structures necessary for a representative democracy Congress, presidency, and judiciary; division of powers between state and national government

16 Chp 2, Sec 3 D. Why did the delegates fear that one branch of the government would gain too much power? Some feared that by granting too much power to Congress, the country would return to the problems experienced under the Articles while others may have feared that a strong executive branch would return the United States to a kind of monarchy.

17 Chp 2, Sec 3 E. Why did the Antifederalists insist that the Constitution must have a bill of rights? The Antifederalists argued that, because the Constitution granted significant powers to the national government, the Constitution must have safeguards to prevent the government from abusing those powers.

18 Chp 2, Sec 3 F. How did the adoption of the Bill of Rights show the flexibility of the Constitution? It showed that the Constitution could be changed to meet the fundamental rights and protection of the people.

19 Purposes of the Constitution Establish Legitimacy Legitimacy – right to rule Framers had to demonstrate that the new government met the standards of legitimacy as set forth in the Declaration of Independence. Create Appropriate Structures Create the structures necessary for a representative democracy Congress, presidency, and judiciary; division of powers between state and national government

20 Purposes of the Constitution Describe and Distribute Power Describe governmental powers Distribute them among the structures Article 1, Section 8 – powers of Congress Article 2, Section 2 & 3 – executive powers Article 3 – judicial powers Article 4 – powers retained by the states

21 Purposes of the Constitution Limit Government Powers Article 1, Section 9 – limits on powers of Congress Article 1, Section 10 – limits on powers of state governments. Allow For Change Article 5 – difficult but not impossible means for amending the Constitution 2/3 of the both houses, or 2/3 of state legislatures can call for/propose an amendment Approval by ¾ state legislatures or ¾ of a convention called for such a purpose.

22 Chp 2, Sec 4 1. What did the Judiciary Act of 1789 accomplish? The Judiciary Act of 1789 provided for a Supreme Court and federal circuit and district courts. It allowed for state court decisions to be appealed to a federal court when constitutional issues were raised. Made federal law the supreme law of the land

23 Chp 2, Sec 4 2. What were the differences between Hamiltons and Jeffersons political views? HamiltonJefferson Believed in strong central government led by a prosperous, educated elite of upper-class citizens Believed commerce and industry were keys to a strong nations Distrusted a strong central government and the rich Favored strong state and local governments Favored popular participation in government Favored a society of farmer - citizens

24 Chp 2, Sec 4 3. What were the main components of Hamiltons economic plan? Called on the nation to pay off its depts Establishment of a national bank funded both by the federal government and wealthy private investors. Bank Issue paper money Handle taxes and other government funds

25 Chp 2, Sec 4 4. Why did the US develop a neutral stance regarding the French Revolution? Opinions were divided Some felt the war was too bloody with rampant beheadings and disregard to due process President Washington Wary of foreign involvement steer clear of permanent Alliances with any portion of the foreign World.

26 Chp 2, Sec 4 5. Why did Jays Treaty provoke anger among some Americans? It allowed the British to continue their fur trade on the American side of the U.S.-Canadian border. Did not resolve the dispute over neutral American trade in the Caribbean. Britain had seized U.S. ships U.S. believed they had the right to free passage

27 Chp 2, Sec 4 1. What was the XYZ Affair and how did it nearly lead the US and France into war? France views US-British agreement over the Northwest Territory as a violation of the French-American alliance. France retaliates by seizing American ships bound for Britain. John Marshall scheduled to meet with the French foreign minister, Tallyrand.

28 Chp 2, Sec 4 1. What was the XYZ Affair and how did it nearly lead the US and France into war? Tallyrand sends three lower level flunkies (X, Y, and X) to meet with John Marshall. XYZ inform Marshall that he must pay $250,000 in order to meet with the foreign minister (Tallyrand). [bribery] US Response – Millions for defense, but no one cent for tribute.

29 Chp 2, Sec 4 1. What was the XYZ Affair and how did it nearly lead the US and France into war? Federalists call for war against France. President Adams calls for diplomacy. Adams damaged his standing among the Federalists, but he kept the United States out of war.

30 Chp 2, Sec 4 2. What were the Alien and Sedition Acts? Why were they considered necessary? Alien Acts (three laws passed by Congress) Raised the residence requirement for American citizenship from 5 years to 14 years Allowed the president to deport or jail any alien considered undesirable. Sedition Act Set fines and jail terms for anyone trying to hinder the operation of the government or expressing false, scandalous, and malicious statements against the government.

31 Chp 2, Sec 4 2. What were the Alien and Sedition Acts? Why were they considered necessary? Federalists felt they were necessary to protect President Adams and the government from merciless criticism by the Democratic-Republicans. Many immigrants were active in the Democratic- Republican party. Some of the most vocal Democratic-Republican critics were foreign born or pro-British. Democratic-Republicans called the laws a violation of their First Amendment right to free speech.

32 Chp 2, Sec 4 3. How did the Kentucky Resolutions challenge the authority of the federal government? Principle of Nullification States have the right to nullify any act of Congress they deem Unconstitutional. Virginia and Kentucky viewed the Alien and Sedition Acts as unconstitutional and called on other states to do so. Balance of power between states and national government remained a controversial issue.


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